The Journal of Edward Ward, 1850 (onboard the Charlotte Jane from Plymouth to Lyttelton) Published in The Journal of Edward Ward, 1951
SEPTEMBER 7TH, 1850. Left Plymouth on board the Charlotte Jane, 730 tons, Commander Alexr. Lawrence, for Port Lyttelton, New Zealand, in company with the Sir George Seymour, Randolph and Cressy, which with us conveyed the first body of colonists to the new settlement of Canterbury, chartered by the 'Canterbury Association'. Chaplain, Rev. Mr Kingdon; Surgeon, Alfred Barker, Esquire; First Mate, Mr Bridger; Second Mate, Mr Woolcot; and twenty- six cabin passengers, fourteen intermediate &-about eighty steerage. Thursday, September 12th On board the Charlotte Jane in about Lat. 42. I try to recollect the events of the last five days, which from confusion, sickness & disagreeables of every kind could not be recorded at the time - but being probably the most eventful of our long voyage, deserve to be set down before they have entirely escaped the memory. On Saturday, September 7th, in the evening, about six o'clock, we weighed anchor in Plymouth Sound, with everything in the ship in dire confusion. Several items of neglect were weighing down my spirits. The birds, the care of the Zoological Committee, had had to be provided with wheat, sand, rice, &c., and my poor cow was to have had green food and some trusses of straw put on board for her. I had ordered these to go on board but till the last moment they were not to be heard of, and a half-hour before the Captain came aboard I sent Henry to kidnap some trusses of straw I had seen lying on the quay as the boat left the shore. He soon returned bringing the straw but nothing else. However, there was no help for it so off we set minus bird seed & sand. The poor people who had come on board were still a subject of anxiety. They had been shewn their berths only a few minutes before we weighed and, after sitting three hours on the noisy deck, hungry and cold, had had hardly time to make themselves comfortable before the ship was rolling about. A word to good -natured Mr Palmer, the third mate, procured them a supper of beef-steaks, which they devoured gladly and as I knew they would require a good deal of pity during the succeeding few days I did not give them too large a dose that night. The wind was fresh and fair and we bowled down gaily outside on a course of S.S.W. and slipped away easily from land while Henry and I were getting out our store of blankets and sheets and making up our beds for the first night on board. Not till the ship began to move on her course - till we had passed the stern of the Sir George Seymour who gave and received three hearty cheers - not till after we had passed the lights of the harbour and the bustle of the deck grew less, did the feeling of reality come over me which I had been long and in vain waiting to receive. Sternly real did I feel my position then - the sails filling for my new country, not to stop or stay till we should arrive there. This feeling of reality was sudden as thunder - at once the dream-films stole away from my head, carrying everything like excitement away with it, and very helpless did I feel standing on the deck that evening. The responsibilities came past me one by one, most of all the condition of the poor emigrants whom I had induced to follow me. I wished then that I had felt the same some time before; strange to say, I felt as if I would have given worlds to run back home again and settle down to anything in England. It was the first time that I had felt anything like repentance of my enterprise - but thank God it was of not long duration. I find at this distance from it, I cannot recollect a tenth of the thoughts that crowded into my mind, but I can only remember that they were innumerable and singularly new and over, powering. Saturday night we went to bed early - a quiet breeze during the night had not inconvenienced any one seemingly, for all appeared well at service at half past ten in the morning. I had been sick during the night and did not venture to breakfast, though many did; but when the service began it revived us all. Mr Kingdon read the service - Deut. XVIII, 19, and a very impressive ceremony it was. At the capstan covered with the Union Jack stood the clergyman in his usual robes, around and beside him, were the poorer emigrants in groups - mothers and children - looking rather miserable, but evidently reviving at the familiar sounds. The sailors were neatly dressed and the men stood in the background - the sailors looking picturesquely clean and devout, the men, on the other hand, looking disheveled and inattentive. The cabin passengers were ranged over the clergyman on the poop and some few behind him at the cuddy door. They all seemed to feel the impressive- ness of the scene - nearly all were in tears. Reminded as I was of the dear ones who were then uttering the same words and thinking of us, I felt like a child. As of Saturday, I can say of this day, that I cannot set down a tenth of the thoughts which beset me. Perhaps, as this journal is for facts and not for thoughts, it is better that they should be left unpainted. The day continuing fine and fresh the greater number of the passengers were on deck and lively - a great many, too, went to dinner, brave and satirical of the seasick. FitzGerald was one of the bravest - Hamilton most outrageously satirical and contemptuous of infirmity in his strength. I felt more indolent than sick and so abstained from going to dinner - for that day I chewed the cud of my most bitter fancy, and nothing else - covered with the jeers of those who fancied themselves recovered for the voyage. In the evening the wind sprang up very fresh and I think nearly all soon retired below. A sick night and weary thoughts with a little sleep constitute all that I can recollect of Sunday night. Monday the wind was high and increased towards noon. All very sick except Charles Mountfort and Hamilton - who remained, the former helping all the sick, the latter despising them. A wave through the scuttles in the morning rendered it necessary to dry our bedding in the quarter boat. What misery that day was! though I have nearly forgotten it now. To bed early, after a little tea in the cuddy with the Captain. This was the first food I had tasted since dinner on Saturday at Plymouth. That night was tranquil but the emigrants were very sick. Margaret Ferguson and Willy McCormick the worst and Andy the best in the ship. Andy has been able to eat his meals all through and declares he feels first rate. Tuesday it was blowing very hard and a miserable day though I was rather better. Hamilton and FitzGerald - the cocks who crowed so loud at first - have had to succumb and have remained below all day. The Captain told us we were being fast carried out of the Bay and were abreast of Cape Finisterre. I suspect this Cape is the bugbear, or rather the sole consolation, of all voyagers on the Bay of Biscay. Deluded individuals in the ship, I believe, fancied we were to touch at it! I slept on deck, beside Wortley and his dog Toddy and passed the most comfortable moments that had occurred to me since I left Cheltenham. The wind, which was high when we retired to the shelter of our water, proofs, had died away when we awoke, a very heavy dew was falling, which ought to have given us dreadful colds, but did not. Wednesday had more victims than any day yet. A long rolling swell sent the ship from side to side in a most distressing manner, but the sun was warm and kept us alive. I had quite recovered and appeared at breakfast and dinner, but the ladies were all in a dreadful state, lying basking about the deck, refusing to be comforted. The doctor (Barker) was very bad - the worst of the whole crew. Nevertheless we had a wedding in the morning between two of our emigrants but every one too uneasy themselves to mind the happiness of this most impatient couple. In the evening a petite reunion in Mrs Mountfort's cabin - the piano going and very cheerful - Charles Mountfort handing about his various stores, especially a confection - drinkable - made of Jargonelle pears, which mixes well in water. Nearly all the passengers at dinner looking much better. The Captain says it is about the last of our soup - a pity, for it is the most refreshing food that the invalids have had. The potatoes, too, are excellent, certainly are made the most of - appearing regularly at breakfast as well as dinner. They cannot last long the Steward says. Thursday, September 12th. (This day) I hope to begin in earnest au courant to the petty events of each day, such as they are. A good show at breakfast, all present except Mr Benjamin Mountfort, his wife and sister, and Mrs Kingdon, who has not yet appeared in the cuddy. Breakfast of hashed beef, beefsteaks & beef kidney (making the most of the beef which must soon be denied us), potatoes - very good - soft bread, biscuit and butter, tea and coffee, cold beef fresh and corned. Opened a box of sardines for Mrs Chas. Mountfort and used some of the Killinchy butter which, having been broken in the crocks, was consigned to the Steward for cabin use. It was very generally approved of. A few petrels appearing in our wake, FitzGerald got out a gun to practise, and wounded one after repeated shots. Wortley practising at a seltzer water bottle with his pistols. The air is cool and invigorating. The Captain has showed us our position on the chart in Lat. 42.32, off Vigo. The emigrants going on well - Margaret able to go about my cabin and clean it out. The wind at quarter past one (London time, half an hour fast) is freshening into a nice breeze, and the ship is settling well on her S.W. course. Some talk of a newspaper to be started - FitzGerald's suggestion I thought that it would be both troublesome and ticklish, though amusing; it would be better not to have a serial but an occasional. The Cockroach suggested as a spicy title. The subject at present falls to the ground. Signalled for an hour and a half to a ship on our weather beam, made her out (most satisfactorily!) to be the Wyoming, bound from Liverpool to Ryde with a cargo of sugar. After she had hoisted at parting the ensign of the Duchy of Mecklenburgh she left us with new notions of the maritime daring and commercial enterprise of the obscure little Duchy. I daresay her acquain- tance with us was made in as equally a satisfactory manner. We hoisted 'The Charlotte Jane, from Plymouth, out seven days, with emigrants', and corrected longitude, etc., before bidding adieu. A goodly party at dinner, the soup and potatoes still to the fore, the first appearance of the salt beef was hailed with fervour and the 'Prime India Beef' was the joke of the table. After dinner a walk with Mrs Mountfort upon deck, aided by an exuberance of spirits and the absence (pro tem) of seasickness, increased to a dance or promenade to the tune of the various choruses which our party (soon numerically augmented) could furnish. 'Sir Roger de Coverley', 'Lucy Long', 'The Boatman's Dance' and other songs of that strain, kept us lively on our feet till nine o'clock when, after looking into Mrs Mountfort's cabin to drink happy returns of her sister's birthday in a glass of sherry, I retired to bed at four bells (ten o'clock by ship's time). Wind light at going to bed, the ship steering W.N.W. During the night it freshened con- siderably and morning came. Friday, September 13th Dirty with a good deal of rain and a raw fog. Most of the company upset again. Hamilton practically sick, I myself and Henry eating our breakfast With fear for consequences. A shark killed last night gave us a fry for breakfast, which smelt savoury but looked dangerous. The sun at eleven o'clock has come out strong and the wind has settled into a fresh breeze with a good deal of not disagreeable motion. The company on deck fore and aft look lively. Andy called me aside this morning to speak the complaint of the single men. It seems they are condemned to clean out the filth of some of the married men, who are privileged, as constables, inspectors, &c. He thought they had more put upon them than the regulations prescribed, and I promised to speak to the Doctor about it. The Doctor has explained to me that the single men have rather less to do than they ought; and show, at any rate that he is a despot on board with the powers of the Passengers' Act at his discretion. There is, therefores no use in appealing or complaining from the Doctor's fiat which, I am bound to say, is guided by the very kindliest motives. Read Fanny's chapter on deck with great pleasure. Twelve o'clock, noon. Lat. 41.31, off Cape St Vincent. The Captain is discontented with his southward progress and compares, grumblingly, his luck upon former voyages, especial- ly a time when he made Madeira in four days from Gravesend. Wind continued fresh till evening, not much sun; the ship's company not so lively as the night before; a good deal of lightning seen to windward. Saturday, September 14th (Extract from the log): 'Lat. 40.40 (nearly off Lisbon), nearly calm, a heavy swell from the West. Course S.W. by W.½ W.' The single man who refused to work yesterday has been 'ordered aft', and stands behind the wheel, a melan- choly example of disobedience. Andy says 'there will be bad work yet', the single men will not do all that is required of them and the crew are discontented at being allowed no grog. Told Andy to keep up the credit of the place we came from by obedience and good example. Another instance of mutiny grieves me more. Margaret reports that Margaret Ferguson has struck work and when asked to hold the children and make herself useful, tells her that she is not her servant and won't do it. This, after all the trouble Margaret has been at for her, and Robert Wilson too, to take her out of poverty and desti- tution in Ireland, is the blackest and basest ingratitude. The people are looking today more cheerful, having a little employ- ment. Willy McCormick is made happy by having the cow consigned to his care, and he scrubs and handles her as if it had been 'Shusan' at Killinchy. Bob, too, comes in for a little more attention than he used to have when rated among the 'stock' and tended by an indifferent person. Mrs McCormick and Margaret are hemming rubbers with all their might, and Robert Wilson is knitting away cheerily. Andy has had a job in fixing the lock of our cabin door and has done it con amore. Mutton chops at breakfast. Biscuit generally preferred to bread, which latter is getting sour - the cook says because of the water. Pillow cases found after a rummage in the chest, on the top of the trays. I knew Mamma would not have left them out so carelessly as we gave her hasty credit for. In the evening a trial of the French cafetiere which, after an expenditure of about half a pint of spirits of wine, produced a cup of most indifferent coffee in an hour and a half. Mrs Mountfort and her husband took tea in my cabin - combining our stores we made a respectable show upon the sideboard (the washing stand) of plum cake, biscuits and butter, honey, gooseberry jam and marmalade, and the evening passed merrily enough - hysterical merriment, too, for the chief cause of mirth was the battalions of cockroaches, careering about, prying from every corner into every corner, deploying over the tea tray, countermarching upon the slices of cake, enfilading the butter and scaling the jam-pot. Some hoary generals were there - admirals, perhaps, were their better rank, from having made many voyages. They are certainly a great nuisance to look at, but at present have really done nothing disagreeable. After tea a noisy evening on deck. FitzGerald and Wortley fighting a main of cocks (themselves!), Wortley winning by two falls. Laughter most uproarious but hysteric. To bed at four bells. Sunday, September 5th After a most uncomfortable night of rolling in a calm swell, woke to find the ship steering her course with a fresh breeze in the right quarter from the N.N.E. Service at half past ten, well attended, the people cleaner and more attentive than last Sunday. Read Fanny's chapter and Sophia's Christian Year on deck with much real pleasure and thought of them all at home intensely. The young man (Turnbull) who headed the 'mutineers' yesterday, has returned to his duty. Bob, looking very wretched in his mange. He can hardly last the voyage and I am afraid. Mrs McC. looking very bad but Margaret and the children thriving and happy. At dinner, mutton roast and boiled, carry fowls. A delicacy was preserved carrots which were excellent. Evening service but no sermon by Mr Kingdon, a lounge on deck with Tupper's Proverbial Philosophy, tea, and after tea an attempt at a chorus from the Oratorio of St Paul, with Mr and Mrs FitzGerald and Mrs Barker. Resolutions recorded to practise regularly. To bed with the wind fair towards the S.S.W., but moderate. The Captain says four days of this weather will take us to the Trades. Lat. 38.35, Long. about 16 W. Monday, September 16th A spanking breeze after a quiet night. Spoke a ship, passing close under her stern-the Antonietta from Rio to Palermo. The Captains on deck compared longitudes, written on a black board (15 W.) and the Neopolitan, taking off his hat, steered his'course again. We were in hopes she was a homeward bound Englishman. It seemed ridiculous to us all to find any ship but an English one presuming to sail on the sea. A very provoking part of our condition is that our number does not appear in the last edition of the Signal Book, so if we speak any ship by signal we shall be represented as the Charlotte or the Jane merely. Mrs McCormick very ill and weak. Sent her some sardines and bread and butter, which she ate; also a dose of salts from the doctor, and got her an allowance of porter to keep up her strength. The men netting busily forward and all very cheerful. The Editor's box for the Cockroach is set up today on a swing tray, to invite contributions to its pages; it will be published as soon as the box is full enough. Dinner displayed fresh pro, visions in the shape of pork. Roast leg of pork, pork chops and pork pie. Curry (very good), pea soup & boiled fowls completed the well-furnished repast. Nearly all the passengers except the Doctor attended. Lat. 36.30, Long. 14.56 W. On deck in the evening, a dance to our own melodious voices - country dance, polka and quadrille. Much ill-will caused by a practical joke of some one, who threw a bucket of water along the deck amongst the quadrille, and made them shift to the other side of the deck. Glee singing by Mr and Mrs FitzGerald and Mrs Barker in the cuddy below. The Captain promises us a sight of Madeira to-morrow. Tuesday, September 17th On deck early, a lovely morning. Hamilton took a shower bath, which is rigged on deck like an ordinary bath made of canvas; through a perforated roof the sailors throw buckets of water down. Came in sight, but not quite signal distance, of a large ship with her fore topmast carried away. Spitefully presumed it was the Randolph, but the Captain does not think so. Sighted the highlands of Porto Santo, one of the Madeira Islands, and are rapidly running down upon it. The weather is truly delicious. The sun is warm but shaded from the deck by an awning and cooled by a fresh breeze which, at the same time favourably filling our sails, is truly luxurious. A sky-sail is set above the main royal. Wrote out an extract from 'What to Observe' upon the Trade Winds for the information of the readers of the Cockroach. Lat 33.26. In the evening on the forecastle, observing our approach to the S.E. point of Madeira. The high mountains called the Kraal (I believe) look noble enough for so small an island. Provokingly passed the shore four miles off after dark so that we could only see what we missed seeing. Trees, vegetation and houses would have been distinctly observed if daylight had lasted two hours longer. In the evening, after tea, Stout, the fiddler, produced his soundest fiddle of three strings all the same size, but managed in spite of the evident difficulties, to set a dozen pair of feet jigging it to a country dance and polka. 'The Girl I Left Behind Me' made a capital polka; we had also a Spanish dance to 'Buy a Broom'-how I was reminded by it of old Killinchy's last days. I could almost fancy I was waltzing round with little Sophia Mordaunt on my arm - my usual partner in that dance. Stayed up dancing and singing till eleven o'clock and retired in hearty good humour. Till twelve gave Bob a run on the decks, which I think did him good. Wednesday, September 8th On deck early, a lovely morning giving promise of heat. We had run Madeira out of sight, and the Captain announces that we are at last in the Trades. The day overpoweringly hot, the awning above hardly keeps us cool. Wortley produced his seltzer water, which mixes well with our raspberry vinegar. Got out our onion seed and aired it upon the deck-a few specks of mildew only to be found. Gave Hamilton his first French lesson, found him very bright and anxious to learn. Gave Margaret Wilson out some worsted to begin knitting socks; she pronounces it all 'chewed by the cocks', meaning cut by the cockroaches, and so it was. Lat. 30.16. Fine weather and light breeze. A quiet evening on deck, and in the cuddy the first meeting of the 'Glee Club'. FitzGerald prime mover of all. Each is to copy his part from the private book on the cuddy table. To bed at half past ten. Prayers commenced this evening at nine o'clock consisting of the church service with one lesson, the priest en robe. Thurday, September 29th Morning prayers after the cuddy breakfast, consisting of the Liturgy without the Litany and two lessons. No benches placed as at Sunday church. The weather is beautiful, not so hot as yesterday, and the breeze very light-almost a calm. Palma, one of the Canaries, in sight on the starboard bow, about twenty- five miles off The far-sighted ones can discern Teneriffe on the larboard bow Talk of letting down the gig and starting for shore at Santa Cruz, the port of' Palma. Practised with Wortley's pistols at a bottle slung up to the mainyard. Lat. 29•47. The breeze freshening, the shore scheme is abandoned, and about eight o'clock p.m. we were passing the light on the high lands of Palma, distant about seven miles. The evening cooler than usual. Several dolphin seen caracolling near the ship in the course of the afternoon. A man stood in the fore- chains with a harpoon ready for them, but in vain, for none came near. There is a great squeeze in the cuddy table, twelve a side at a table intended to hold twenty. Complaints of this, of the ship's filter and the Association's tea are rife, but not as yet violent. The Captain expects to be off Ferro, the last of the Canaries to-morrow. It is most unfortunate that we should have passed close to the very two islands which would have repaid the sight, at night, instead of in the morning, when the sun would have lighted up all the beauties. Gave Bob a dose of salts to cool him; he is evidently recovering from his mange and looking livelier. Gave the guns and pistols a good over, hauling and cleaning; found them in very good case indeed. Friday, September 20th On deck early and found we were steering close to the island of Ferro, the southernmost of the Canary Islands. A little town, which on reference to the chart we found was called Valverde, was perched high on the steep hillside, from which the cliff mountain descended perpendicularly to the water. No sign of a landing place or, at first, of any vegetation the only appearance being that of a sterile brown. We wondered much how men could choose their homes in such a spot as this, and consent to make a town of it. As we viewed the island closer we discovered that the village was beautifully placed in a dell or valley and green vegetation was abundant. Dwarf trees and shrubs we supposed to be vines, soon appeared, and the houses swelled into large and respectable mansions in considerable numbers. A large grey building, situated in a quinta or villa garden, was pronounced to be a convent. The peak of Teneriffe shows well today; though at an amazing distance, towering among haze and clouds. The sun not too hot, the weather truly enjoyable above and below. The cabin on our lower deck is, I think; the pleasantest place while the scuttles are open, but the least exertion in so confined an atmosphere makes one disagree, ably hot. Our place on the chart today by observations corrected by bearings from the land we are passing is Long• 17-44 West, Lat. 27.48 N. The wind blowing freshly from N.E. Every one gay and happy, except Margaret Wilson, who complains of headache and pains in back and breast. Took a shower bath for the first time and found it exceedingly pleasant. A dance on deck in the evening and to bed at half past ten. Saturday, September 21st A fortnight today from Plymouth - the days pass quickly and pleasantly. The wind blows fresher and a point or two more to the East. The weather cool and delightful. Hamilton says his French lesson very punctually and well-he evidently gives his mind to it. My bath this morning at the forecastle. pump. I think it is an improvement upon the shower bath. Fencing, single-stick & boxing with the gloves constitute the amusements of the ship. Margaret Wilson a little better, but sickly looking. The children are all thriving. Lat. 25.14 N. In the evening much amusement among the steerage passengers with the boxing gloves-but the Captain found it necessary to make a rule that emigrant only should stand up with emigrant and sailor with sailor, fearful of feuds between the two parties. Some Whales were seen today at a great distance, spouting. Sunday, September 22nd Woke to find ourselves in the tropics at last. A fresh breeze-or what landsmen would call a high wind - was blowing dead aft and making the vessel roll and pitch uncomfortably enough But as it kept the deck cool and tempered the action of a tropical sun, we were to consider ourselves fortunate. Lat. 22.27. Service on deck at half past ten of the Liturgy without Communion Service, and a sermon by Mr Kingdon. The Psalms for the day very appropriate - 'They that go down to the sea in ships', etc. On deck till two and read my Christian Tear for the day and for St Matthew's Day, also the 'Forms of Prayer to be used at Sea' Forgot yesterday to mention the appearance of the first number of the Cockroach, in a cover beautifully emblazoned with the cockroach 'proper' by FitzGerald in sepia. A good leading article by FitzGerald, a chapter on the Canary Islands and an effusion called the 'Cockroach's Meditations' by Cholmondeley were most admired. It gives hopeful promise by being free from personal allusion or witless gossip. Herewith: THE MEDITATION OF A COCKROACH I am no less than a cockroach bold, Creeping and crawling from deck to hold, Hunting each cabin and hammock and bed. Under the pillow where rests your head, Under the tablecloth, up the chair, • I run up your sleeves and I crawl through your hair; Neither man nor child does the cockroach spare, But most I visit the ladies fair; And they all behold me with shudder and scream And start from my presence as from an ill dream, So ugly and black I can make myself seem. This is surely a destiny great, This is indeed a station Worthy the wish of the subtle fate Of the mighty chief of the noble state Of the ancient Cockroach nation! For I am the Prince of the -Cockroaches all, And they bow before me in bower and hall. And the Captain owns me for what I am, And takes off his cap with a low salaam. And when I appear the sailors say 'Make room, my lads, without delay For the King of the Cockroaches comes this way'. Father Hesper! Father Hesper! Hear my prayer I vow: Hearken to my chirping whisper Rising from below. My religious fits come seldom, So you'd better listen now. For my lungs are feeble-smaller Than the organs of a man, I was never yet a bawler, Hear me, therefore, while you can. If I lie, I wish the cook may Pop me in the pan. By the pensive ray Of Cynthia's gleams, By the dawn of day Flushed with rosy beams, By the frolickings of Phosphor On the broken sea, I beseech ye--prosper All who sail with me. By the starry choir that lances A pale nightly glance On the bark that heaves and dances As the billows dance, Guide us guide our ship and cargo On the infinite expanse. And may every jovial sailor, gentleman and lady fair Treat the gentle cockroach kindly, mindful of his heartfelt prayer. Thus sublimely, in the dreamy slumbers of the midnight bed Rose the meditation; and I heard the words the being said. And my soul was greatly shaken, and my limbs were cramped with dread. For methought a mighty cockroach squatted close beside my head. And I sought to clutch him, but the monster with the vision fled. Today I saw the first flying fish and during the whole afternoon was amused by coveys of them flying across-or rather flitting across-the water. They rather disappointed me, as I imagined them to be larger and to fly higher. Very few at dinner, the gale having upset a good many of the invalids who had grown courageously well. The Doctor, as usual, the worst invalid in the ship. Several leaks appear in our cabin, and the drip from the ceiling is very uncomfortable, yet not much misfortune after all. The Captain says ten days of this breeze will take us to the line. Porpoises appeared at nightfall playing about the ship. A strong fair breeze carries us gaily on. Monday, September 23rd After a very hot night, in which very heavy rain was heard on deck, was much refreshed by a shower bath. A flying fish flew on deck, and of course was nabbed. He appeared something like a herring without scales, with wings, of course, of a very fine membrane. A shark - the newest wonder of the deep - hove his dorsal fin in sight about breakfast time, but only a favoured few caught sight of him. Mrs McCormick still very ill with seasickness, and faint for want of eatable food. Lat. 18.47. We have run 203 miles in the last twenty-four hours, to the South. In the evening after sundown the wind had fallen nearly to a calm, and the close heat was most oppressive. The passengers lounged about in uneasy postures, like in a fever hospital, and all walking, arid of course dancing, was out of the question. Cholmondeley, Wortley, Bowen, Mr and Mrs Kingdon, FitzGerald and I clustered on a corner of the poop and played at inventing a story, which passed from mouth to mouth with abrupt transition. This afterwards changed to poetry and after one had composed a line the rest had to invent a thyme to it. It was excessively amusing, and would have gone far into the night had not Bob and Crib abused their privilege of coming to the poop °and begun to fight, to the discomfiture and dispersion of all the ladies. We stayed on deck a long time, and found it afterwards hard to leave it for the close 'tween decks. The Captain assures us it will be at least ten degrees hotter! Tuesday, September 24th Thermometer at breakfast at eighty-five in the cuddy. Heard that a child had died in the night. It had been sickly before but, strange to say, that the father and mother, though aware of the extreme danger of the child, did not wake any one or take any means to gain assistance till morning. It is believed that, not even when it was dead, did they take the trouble of informing the doctor. After breakfast the funeral was performed and the body of the poor child, swathed in a Union Jack with a shot at its feet, was plunged into the sea. At the very moment a huge school of porpoises appeared, playing just abreast of the ship opposite the port hole where the body was lowered down. This was the first appearance of these porpoises, and strange to say, as soon as the body was cornmitted to the deep, they disappeared. Superstitious people might have made something of this apparition. Romantic and ingenious people might have said that a troop of angels had appeared to bear away the soul of the child through the deep to heaven. The air is fearfully hot, and the emigrants feel it greatly. The sea is nearly cahn and we are creeping on at about half a knot. Lat 8-showing only forty-seven miles since yesterday. A brig right forward, about three miles, supposed to be a brig-of-war. People getting letters ready to send by her if she should prove a cruiser. If not, she is no use as our course is the same as hers - outward bound. A great fuss and heat engendered in getting the emigrants' boxes, &c., out of the hold. After dinner, invited by the Captain to a cool bottle of claret, and he subsequently took his stand upon the martingale to strike dolphins. He saw several, but missed every blow. The heat on deck in the evening very stifling almost, if not quite, too excessive to allow of a walk up and down. Several slept on deck, and nearly all the steerage emigrants (the single men) slept on the fore, castle covered with sheets and sails. I slept down below, however, but it as a restless and unrefreshing sleep. The wind freshened from a calm to a pleasant breeze and continued so till morning. Wednesday, September 25th The air fresher this morning and we are going about six knots. The brig is about the same distance ahead of us as yesterday. Lat. 16.0-100 miles in the last twenty- four hours. In the afternoon the breeze continues steady and she sails about seven and a half knots. Passengers beginning to shun tea in the cuddy but have it taken up on deck to them. A little land bird caught on the rigging - it was a grey water-wagtail. We put it among the other little birds to give it a chance of getting some food-- he died in about an hour after. Worked hard all day to get my papers and letters in some sort of order. Finished a poem for the Cockroach of the miscellaneous facetious sort. First day for mounting white jackets, in which we all three appeared at breakfast. Our position on the map is shown abreast (inside) of the Cape de Verd Islands. Thursday, September 26th Slept on deck last night till eight bells (four o'clock a.m.). Though the air was cooler than below, it was not comfortable to feel exposed to the heavy dew which was falling. Went down and slept heavily till breakfast time. A whale was reported seen near the ship about six o'clock. An accident to the fore cabin steward, who was stunned and nearly killed by a spar falling upon him, and the report of a ghost being seen in the forecastle constitute the events of this day. Lime juice has commenced to be served out forward, to the comfort of the emigrants. A dread- ful headache I impute to the imprudent snooze on deck. A barque (perhaps the Cressy) is seen on the lee bow, not far off. Lat. 14.4. Very 1ight wind in flaws, occasionally almost quite calm. Some 'Portuguese men of war' of the nautilus genus, are seen skimming gracefully past the ship, and serve for a time to annexe our languid and indolent eyes. The Captain (as usual, a saying of the Captain's) says that we have had nothing like Trades this voyage and curses his stars that he came inside the Canaries. Two of our fowls and the cock very ill and going blind. Got Andy to make a new hutch for the invalids, in which they seem to do better. The rest of the animals, including the cow and both dogs, are doing as well as can be expected in the excessive heat. Buckets of water judiciously applied keep their bodies cool and plenty of water to drink gives them a little chance. No more complaints of any kind from the steerage. I believe that we have got now more accustomed to the heat and can bear it better. The wind fell off towards evening to a dead calm. A notice appeared on the poop forbidding smoking there from nine to nine. This gives very general dissatisfaction, especially as it is supposed to emanate from the caprice of an unpopular lady. Vows to write to the Cockroach recorded on all sides. Friday, September 27th A bucket-splashing match on deck early - the Captain not well pleased. Wind light, but increased to a nice breeze about twelve o'clock. All day below writing for and editing to-morrow's Cockroach. A ship on the lee bow was signalled and proves to be the Dido twenty-four days out from Gravesend, (three day before us) for Swan River. Weather either not so hot or more tolerable. Wind falls away towards night to a dead calm. Lat. 12.27, Long. 41.27W. Miss Bishop and Mrs B. Mountfort made a plum cake today in the cuddy. Night hot; after tea no occupation but groups sit about listlessly talking to one another. Sat the greater part of the day 'editing' the new number of the Cockroach. Con- tributions flow in apace. Saturday, September 28th Louie's birthday. Hurried on deck about seven o'clock to see a squall come up. The carpenter had previously gone the round of the main deck, warning people to close the scuttles, &c., that I felt sure something peculiar was expected. I went on deck and found the ship lying becalmed, the sails flapping without wind but every one in a bustle. The Captain and Mate both on the poop giving loud and rapid orders - the seamen rushing about. Nothing was to be seen for some time by a landsman's eye, till soon, looking to windward might have been observed a dark line of water rather higher than the level of the surround- ing sea, walking quickly up to us. It was seen, and everything made quite snug, and two men placed at the wheel before the squall struck the ship. She lay over, scuppers under at once, and rushed madly through the water, kept before the wind. She was afterwards brought up, lay her course, and we went gaily through the water for about three hours. Heavy rain refreshingly accompanied the squall, and some thunder. The publication of the Cockroach occupied the great part of the morning in editorial conclaves. The weather not so hot, though but little wind. The barque and a brig still in sight but having had the heels of us during the night. We are all much disappointed at seeing so few of the fish and other wonders of the deep which travellers had told us to expect in these latitudes. Not a shark, dolphin or porpoise and only a stray flying fish now and then, to break the monotony of the calm water. At dinner the Cockroach read and much approved of. It was enriched by contributions from nearly every cuddy passenger. The smoking edict dealt very hardly with in the 'original correspondence'. Lat. 11.38. Off the Gulf of Guinea. A homeward bound ship descried by the Captain's eye far to windward. Sunday, September 29th Morning fine with pleasant breeze; no need to say that it was very hot, but not so much as to make us miserable. Service fully performed by Mr Kingdon, and notice given of the administration of the Sacrament next Sunday. The emigrants all clean and neatly dressed, and appear to better advantage en masse than I have ever seen them yet. Prickly heat beginning to show itself on old and young. It has attacked Hamilton and is just appearing on my hand. Lat. 9.40 N. Monday, September 30th A squall came up at breakfast time, but brought up very little wind and only some very heavy rain. All on deck to see its effect and were evidently disappointed. A great assortment of waterproofs and dreadnoughts were brought up. My pet Cordings began to leak at once - the worthless things that I paid so much for. Watched Mrs Fisher making some bread and a cake, for which I was rewarded by a slice of the latter hot when it was baked. Lat. at noon 8.32. The day somewhat cooler, wind dead against us, but the Captain says it is the prevailing wind on the variable space; Wrote long additions to my letters. While I remember it I will add the list of the contents of the last Cockroach. An original editorial article by FitzGerald on the 'Smoking Edict'. A copy of the Captain's log for the week. A paper No.1 on Gardening by Wortley, a paper No.1 on Colonial Buildings by Benjamin Mountfort. The first of a series of chit-chat article on the 'Wonders of the Deep' by Dr Barker. Two letters, one by Bishop and the other by myself; on the smoking prohibition. A burlesque poem entitled 'A Cockroach's Confessions' by myself, and by the same hand some burlesque 'Notices of Eminent Individuals recently Deceased' A paper by the Captain on the 'Variables. A poem by Mr Kingdon on the death of a certain (Mrs Barker's) cat; and a letter by Mr Kingdon supposed to be written by a Canterbury Colonist six months after arrival. Some extracts (L.E.L. on 'The Polestar' and others) finished up a very satisfactory number, also some lines by Bowen, a translation of a scene in Corneille's Horace, and an original story by Cholmondeley called 'The Life Adventures, etc., of Miss Betsy Williams' by George Godfrey - to be continued. The weather on deck and below wonderfully cool and pleasant for the parallel of latitude. Varied our amusements in the evening by a row in the gig-twice round the ship-the weather being quite calm and the ship going at about one and a half knots. Utter loneliness seemed the characteristic of her situation, so small did she appear in the middle of the vast ocean. Tuesday, October 1st A very hot night, as the scuttles had to be closed for fear of squalls. Towards morning heavy rain came on but stopped soon after breakfast. Latitude at noon The gig out again this evening but I did not care to go again. Rather cooler all day. Caughey met with an ugly accident this morning. Standing in the lower hold among the water casks, an empty one from an upper tier fell upon him and bruised his side and cut his leg. He had a most providential escape of his life. The Doctor reports him as at present, to all appearance, not seriously injured, but dreads any injury internally to the kidneys The cock is coming round and beginning to see and eat. Wednesday, October 2nd Found a fine breeze rolling us onward though a point or two out of our best course. It increased after breakfast and stiffened into something strong. Some confusion on the forecastle from some stay giving way, which had nearly lost us our foreyard. Lat. 6.30. The Captain sus- pects that we are being carried by some current rapidly to the eastward. Caughey is better today and complains only of bruises. The cock feeding and seeing a deal better. After dinner the Captain taught us the game of shovel-board, which is a sort of deck quoits or bowls; lasted and amused us till dark. Thursday, October 3rd Fine breeze taking us in a S.E'ly direction. Two hens have been declared by Mrs Wm. McCormick 'wi' egg' - straw and separate rooms have been given them. The Doctor quite knocked up with seasickness and unable to attend on Caughey, who complains today of much stiff- ness in his ankle. A large ship in sight all day which, about luncheon time, came within long signal distance and is suspected or guessed to be the Gladiator, American whaler. Lat. 5.26. The surmise was not confirmed as she never answered our signals. About four p.m. sighted a large ship on the opposite tack, which at first caused some excitement as likely to be homeward bound. She did not come near enough to signalize, but went unknown on her way. We, as usual, pronounced her to be, first the Randolph, next the Sir George Seymour, as if those were the only two ships an the sea just now. Shovel-board till dark. The breeze freshened with successive squalls accompanied by rain. The ship steering S.E. by E. - a bad course, too much easterly. Sore throats rife in the ship, and one or two cases of rheumatism caused by sleeping on deck. One of the hens laid an egg about six o'clock, but before Will McCormick could come up from the hold it had been snapped up. The ship seems to be crammed full of thieves, 'snappers up of unconsidered trifles'. Daily the chance of meeting homeward bound vessels to take letters is lessening - it seems we are rather far to the eastward of the track of the Indiamen, and Australians and New Zealanders are not common enough to meet on the high seas. Friday, October 4th Wind dead South with fresh breeze. Heat almost gone and in the evening rather chilly. The Yankee sail is hull down astern and to leeward. A barque (Cressy, of course) in our weather quartet the greater part of the day. The Torquay figs have put out two young leaves each, which grow apace. Passengers begin to feel the increase of wind and some are very seasick. Prepared contribution to the Cockroach, which will hardly, in my opinion, appear this week. Lat. 4.51 at noon. The hens are supposed to have laid again, but both eggs and nest eggs have gone. I am obliged to deprive Bob of his nightly run, as during his prowl last night he retrieved a large piece of salt pork - this in addition to the mauling of a dead pig a few nights ago, has been the occasion of his sentence. He bears confinement and heat wonderfully well. Began The Voyages of Columbus with the intention of having some 'steady reading' now that the heat has begun to go. Saturday, October 5th A fresh breeze blowing when I went on deck to bathe-found it quite cold to stand without my clothes. The motion has set some of the passengers going again. The Captain very savage at the foul wind which is carry- ing us so far to the East. He carries on, however. He tried about noon what he could do by putting about, but after standing on for five miles or so, found he was standing W.N.W., which would soon run up the latitudes again. Lat. today 4.11, shewing 45 miles of southing since yesterday - not bad against a dead south wind. The Captain grimly satisfied at finding the barque, which was yesterday about seven miles to windward, is now the same distance to leeward. We seem to catch up, and leave both astern and alee every sail we meet. No. III of the Cockroach appeared today - it fills well. It is very gratifying to anonymous contributors to hear readers laughing at their papers or admiring them. When vice versa, it is not so pleasant. The phosphorescent light very beautiful tonight - from it our Captain lays the flattering unction to his soul that he is near the Trades. On deck in the course of a lecture from the Captain about Underwriters, Insurance and Lloyds, heard that very heavy bets have been laid about the respective rates of sailing of our four ships- that Randolph is the favourite and we are next. Robert Wilson complaining of weakness and inability to eat or drink anything. Margaret seems uneasy about him. All the rest well. Caughey nearly recovered. Sunday, October 6th Light but cool breeze from South. Service, but only the Morning Prayer without Communion Service or sermon. The Communion Service, at which the Sacrament was administered, was performed in the cuddy. The day very pleasant but the consciousness that the wind is taking us too far to the eastward is annoying us. Lat. 3.26 N. Forgot to observe yesterday upon the most gorgeous spectacle the sea presented at night. The phosphoric light covered the sea, upon which the ship as it moved cast up golden billows. The scene is indescribably glorious. Monday, October 7th Breeze fresher but still fails - though the ship has tacked several times nothing can be made of it, but she still will go to the eastward only. This makes the Captain very un- happy. We all do not much mind it, as the steady breeze keeps us so cool. No observation today, but we are some- where in the parallel of three degrees. Captain says we may be a week getting to this tedious 'Line'. Hamilton getting on remarkably well with his French by short well understood lessons. Robert Wilson reports himself much better. Prickly heat vanishing, succeeded by boils especially in the children's faces & knees. About seven o'clock found wind changing a little, and tacked, ship standing a good westerly course; stood West all night with fresh breeze. After tea, dancing till late, though rather too rough to make us very particular about our steps. Tuesday, October 8th Westerly wind still prevailing and the variation brings us a little to the South of West. Latitude 1 degree 41 minutes N. The breeze is delightfully cool considering our situation on the earth's surface. After tea Neptune's 'Secretary' came aboard in the blazing tar barrel having first hailed the ship, answered by the Chief Mate, who stood on the poop ladder in proper form with a speaking trumpet. A figure dressed in dark flowing garments and smelling fearfully of tar came elbowing through the crowd of curious passengers on the poop to the Captain, and drawing a tarry satchel from beneath his clothes, presented the Captain with a budget of letters - one for himself and others addressed to several passengers - all being to the effect that 'their father' Neptune would pay them a visit on the morrow. (Original is appended, which runs as follows: The Line. Most loving son and daughter, Some of my Tritons having hinted to me that you are about to enter my dominions, and as it has been my law time out of mind, for all the uninitiated to pay a toll, I shall attend upon you in person at the proper time to claim the same. My wife and family join in hoping that you have had a pleasant passage hitherto, and that it may continue so to the end. Ever your loving parent NEPTUNUS. Addressed to Mr Ward & Broth.) Soon after Neptune's fiery chariot was seen drifting away. Much curiosity and consternation among the passengers fore and aft as to the probable events of the 'Crossing the Line'. On deck till late playing a round of rhyme impromptu. Some verses being better suited to the hour of midnight than the ears of ladies, to our horror we discovered afterwards must have been all heard by two ladies who were sitting in a dark corner not far off. Wednesday, October 9th Still blowing fleshly from the W. and by S. - very pleasant and cool. Having put a clean pair of Wednesday trousers on, was not much pleased to find myself, an hour after, sprawling on my side among the dirt of the cow, dogs & cock's house. Preparations were in liveliness for Neptune's visit. Everyone asking, 'Do you think they will really shave us? especially the ladies. Latitude at noon 0.43. Henry made a 'macassar' ointment for Bob's bald places with gunpowder, burnt leather & butter: applied it thoroughly with Willy's assistance. After the cuddy dinner the fun of the day began. As soon as the first passengers were seen leaving the table, a wild shout was heard, and from behind a tarpaulin screen slung from the foremast across one side of the deck, rushed the most motley group ever were seen. About a dozen grotesque figures suddenly appeared surrounding a gun car- riage, which they dragged rumbling and creaking to the poop stairs. On the carriage was seated Neptune, clothed in a sort of tunic, blotched and streaked into a fantastic pattern with tar and paints, red, blue and black. He wore a hideous mask of the same colours and was armed with a long sword and a speaking trumpet. Through this he kept continually shouting hoarse orders which we could not understand, but his satellites did with a vengeance. His lady was dressed as an ordinary mortal, with dingy gown, black silk bonnet & oakum ringlets, with a baby in her arms. She was represented by Jonas, the smallest of the boys. Arrived at the poop he ascended with his bear and bear-leader, his secretary, barber and surgeon and other attendants, to demand tribute from the strangers there. He was received by Wortley, the representative of the cabin passengers, who in their name presented him with a subscription list, which in various sums the passengers agreed to furnish at New Zealand. It amounted, with the contributions of the intermediate, to £6 12s. They descended then, and passing across the deck, the whole party ascended to 'Neptune's Easy Shaving Shop' as announced by a chalk inscription to that effect, surmounted by a barber's pole. The procession scattered the emigrants on the deck in all directions - most of them ascended to the poop, where they fancied them- selves, and really were for a time, secure. Some of the children and many of the weaker women were already much frightened at the grotesque dresses and preferred to go at once below. Meantime the order was arranged in the shop. On the top of the cow-house was placed a little dog-kennel on the brink of a large sail filled with water to about the depth of five feet. The barber and barber's assistant-the former with a razor of notched hoop, and the latter with a tar brush and a pot of tar grease and stinking filth, stood ready on the stage to receive the customers, and the bear stood in the sail below to duck them after the operation. A novice was then led forward blindfold. On his way he was met by the 'doctor' who felt his pulse and ordered him some salts which were immediately thrown over him in two or three buckets of salt water-lent him a smelling bottle-the cork being filled with pins. After this, and being tripped over a rope, he was led up the ladder to be shaved, amidst a shower of buckets from every quarter. Seated on the dog-kennel, he was first lathered with the tar and grease, which was completely scraped off with the hoop, the operator formally stropping his razor between every few strokes upon an enormous black bone. After he had been well scraped, the unlucky victim was pitched, still blindfold, backwards into the sail, where he was received by the bear and well worried and ducked. About six or seven were operated on, and the spectators were enjoying the sight from the poop, ladies and all - when suddenly the word was given by Neptune through his trumpet 'Pass the word to give the poop a raking fire', and sailors begin to pitch bucketsful from the main deck upwards. The scurry became dreadful after a few drenchings, and nearly all the ladies deserted it, except Mrs Fisher and her maid who, having been well wet with the first discharge, had sense enough to see the fun of it. Mrs Bishop and Miss Howard were led down nearly fainting, but this did not diminish the fun, now becoming furious, fast and general. Every one that could provided himself with a bucket and poured it over every one that came near him, sailors and passengers pell-mell, now rushing up the poop and deluging the people there, now in playful duels, surprises and ambuscades among themselves. Every one on deck had their dress wetted through and through before they went down - Captain and all. The Captain was at one time seen scrambling up the rigging and chase given him from below. This lasted for about two hours, and when every one was nearly tired, both of the fun and of their own exertions, the word was given to clear the decks. But the sailors were still unappeased, having been disappointed of finding a man who had been making himself obnoxious to all on board - the steward of the intermediate cabin - and though they had searched, as they thought, through every corner, he had not been found. However, just as they had begun to leave off and unrig, he appeared, having been hidden in the hospital. They dragged him up, and being much exasperated by the fruitless search, they paid him off savagely. They lathered him till his mouth was full of filth - they shaved him till the skin was scraped off his face-and the bear nearly drowned him when he got him in the water. He emerged in a pitiable plight and even his greatest enemies almost were sorry for the excess of his punishment. The hatches were now removed, and the timid emigrants, who had been nearly stifled below and drenched with occasional bursts of water, were allowed to emerge. Every man got a dose, of rum to keep the chill off him, and soon after, comfort and good humour restored to everybody, they were enabled to laugh at the absurdity of the whole scene. At the same timed there are few on board who do not condemn the principle of the extortion (for such it is with those who can afford to pay for escaping shaving) and who do not believe the whole affair to be as stupid, ridiculous and silly a custom as has ever been handed down to us by ancestors and recommended by the traditions and wisdom of time out of mind. I would recommend every man novice who crosses the line to prepare himself for it by putting on a pair of old white trousers, a dirty shirt and no shoes or stockings getting a bucket and joining in drenching the others as hard as he can. It is stupid to stand looking on, and if he has paid his shot (about five shillings will do), he need not fear being shaved or meddled offensively with. Ladies should not leave the cuddy on any pretence; if they are tempted to go on the poop to 'see the fun', neither their age, appearance, dress or entreaties will save them from being drenched. They can, however, see it all well if they secure a front row at the cuddy forward windows. On the forecastle till near midnight. Singing was kept up in right jovial style. We expected to pass the Line about midnight. Thursday, October 20th Vessel going W.S.W. with a steady breeze, keeping us deliciously cool. Lat. 0.30 S. Our august entrance into the Southern hemisphere. A dolphin caught on the line aft, and brought into the cuddy. Sore disappointments! He was only the size of a moderate four pound salmon - very like a salmon about the head and a mackerel about the tail A fierce dispute between the Captain and Doctor, the latter upholding the fish to be not a dolphin, the former adducing his twenty-five years at sea to prove that it was, and that no seaman called that fish any other name. The Doctor says the dolphin proper is a mammal and akin to the porpoise - whereas this fish is a fish with fins, tail and gills. When doctors disagree, who shall decide? The Doctor calls it now 'the dolphin-fish of mariners'. It was cooked for dinner and was delicious. Dancing on deck to the fiddle by a new hand, till late. Friday, October 11th The wind has settled at last into the regular S.E. trades. Spent a listless day with headache and languor. Lat. 2.28 S. The wind fresh in the morning, calmed down at night. A jolly party in the mizzentop, singing and joking. Saturday, October 12th About four o'clock there spread through the ship, like an electric shock, the news that a ship was almost alongside and would take letters. All was immediately fuss and dire confusion among those who had no letters ready, but I, had only to seal up mine and direct them. Sent letters to Mamma, Fanny, Bowler, Sewell and to Rev. Mr Kittoe his original land orders, also to Charlwood, the seedsman, to send my seeds for the first ship to Bowler's care. Andy came into my cabin to seal up a letter for his wife which he put into my bundle. None of the other people had letters ready. When I went on deck I found the brig, a beautiful little clipper of about 300 tons, lying about 300 yards off. The mail bag was soon made up and despatched by the Chief Mate with a sack of potatoes and half a dozen of bottled porter. She was the Zeno of Richmond, bound from Benguela to New York, five months out of New York, laden, as we supposed, with palm oil and ivory. Shrimpton and Chas. Bowen went on board and reported a number of parrots and monkeys along the deck. They eagerly asked for news, but neither of them could tell that the American President or General Taylor or Louis Philippe were dead, although the Yankees must have been ignorant of all. They sent us back a bag of oranges, two or three bottles of rum & a jar of pre- served ginger. Away she sailed with all our loves, hopes and fears on board. Is there the least chance of those letters arriving ever at their destination? The Captain says they may arrive in England in about two months. All day engaged on the Cockroach No. IV contributing two articles in the usual style. Lat 4.38 S. Wind S.E. Trade blowing gently and pleasantly. Porpoises and flying fish more numerous than on the other side of the Line. Sunday, October gth Fresh breeze from steady S.E. Ship steering S.W. by W. Lat. 7.18 S. having run 192 miles in the last twenty- four hours, of which 160 were dead southing. Service as usual morning and evening. Sore throats extending over the ship. Mrs Chas. Mountfort very ill indeed and Hamilton complaining. Quite cold on deck in the evening-getting too cold to wear light things. Monday, October 14th A sea came through the scuttle in the night and flooded out Hamilton who was lying on the floor. He rolled himself up on the top of his chest, and slept soundly in spite of it. Shut up the scuttles, but the sea running high, struck them again and came through into the cabin - this time over me - filtering through the roof. Hamilton's throat bad in reality this morning. Gave him a dose of salts and made a gargle of Port wine and Cayenne pepper putting flan- nel round his neck. Our Mapson's plaster in great request for the boils throughout the ship. Today the sun makes his apparent course to the northward - behind us. Lat. 10.13 S., after making what the Captain calls a 'three degree day' within two miles of three degrees having been made southing in the last twenty-four hours. Contents of Cockroach this week: 'Outward bound and Homeward bound' by Cholmondeley, being a paper of thoughts upon the incident of the American vessel’s meeting. Captain's log, in which he remarks upon the unusual conduct of some of the ladies in staying on deck till twelve o'clock. Gardening No. 3, by Wortley, very useful and well written. 'On Sailing', a long paper by FitzGerald. 'A Story of Spanish Life' founded on fact by Wortley. 'The Story of the Charlotte Jane' No. 2, by self. 'Incidents of the Week, being Extracts from the Journal of a Determined Journalizer who Wishes for Something More to Write to his Friends than Monotony and Truth', by self. 'On the Wonders of the Deep' No. 2, by the Doctor on the dolphin. Two original things by Wortley - one against scandal, and an epigram on the Doctor in re the dolphin, the former very pretty. On the whole a good sensible number, with a proper admixture of light and serious. Tuesday, October 15th Fine fresh-blowing breeze carrying us on at an average of eight and a half knots. Latitude at noon 13.32 S., a clear run of 200 miles, of which 197 were dead South. This is considered a most extraordinary run for a mer- chant vessel, the Captain is accordingly in high spirits. Hamilton's throat nearly well - thanks to the strong remedies of yesterday. In the evening got out Sophia's musical box and let it play upon deck. The tunes were much admired - both by others and by me. Great disputes as to who shall get the china ginger jar - proposals to shoot for it. People beginning to leave the deck o'nights and sit in the cuddy. The weather evidently somewhat colder. Robert Wilson and Abernethy still complaining of weakness and loathing of their food - all the rest well and hearty. The sick cock died yesterday. Wednesday, October 6th This morning the wind had fallen somewhat, but latitude observed at noon showed that we had made all but three degrees of southing in the last twenty-four hours. Lat. 16.22 S. After breakfast billets cast and preparations made for a shooting match - the winner to get the china jar. Mountfort's rifle in use. About ten entered. The Cap- tain, Mr Bowen and his son, FitzGerald, the Doctor, myself, Hamilton and Henry and Wortley. Wortley shot for Miss Bishop and the Captain for Mrs Kingdon. A bottle was strung up to the main-yard and after shooting all round, Mountfort and I were the only ones who hit. We shot it over again and I having again hit and he missed I was declared the winner of the jar. Great fun made about it. Cholmondeley after dinner offered me a pound for it! Concluded a bargain with him for one of his sheep dog pups if any survive to reach New Zealand. The wind falls off towards evening and to- night we are quite becalmed. Hamilton's birthday (his sixteenth), being generally known on board he is made a great deal of. The ladies making a cake to celebrate it. Mrs FitzGerald, maker in chief, said last night 'It's Jolly's birthday tomorrow, but I have put it off till next day to make a cake for him'. Robert Wilson and Abernethy a great deal better, quite able to eat as usual. The farmer getting on well with my net, having completed the bag of the seine and a good deal of the one wing. In fact, what with Willy McCormick attending to cow, fowls & dogs, Margaret keeping my cabin in order, Robert Wilson making my net and Andy doing many an odd job for me in his line, they are all most useful to me. Deck washed down at half past ten tonight, as the last means of keeping below the ladies who persist in refusing to take the hint that it is very improper to stay late on deck. Thursday, October 17th Calm had prevailed during the night with some heavy rain. The ship is only going a couple of knots through the water. Some talk of rifle sweepstakes, entrance being a bottle of beer. After luncheon these were set on foot. Thirteen shot three shots each. Only six hit well and they shot off again for five prizes of six, four, three & one bottle respec- tively. I did not hit once. Wortley and FitzGerald divided the first two, Chas. Mountfort the third, and Mr Bowen the fourth. Henry saved his stakes. Great talk at dinner on the subject. After tea some pleasant dancing by moonlight. Lat- 17.25 S., Long. 25 W. Friday, October 18th Derry's poor child, which had been lingering for the last month, died last night and was buried this morning. Pleasant sailing breeze and delicious weather. Every one looking happy. The sea is assuming the beautiful deep blue which it wore on entering the tropics. A few noddies were seen flying about the ship this morning. Bob got a good race about the ship last night, it having been ascer- tained first that there was no beef left uncovered. He is getting into handsome form and his hair is crisping into good curl. Lat. today at noon 19.25. Spent the afternoon upon the maintop with Wortley, imagining and planning for the future. Feel very lazy and languid all day and unable to concentrate my mind upon anything for the Cockroach. Wind at night freshening up a little. Saturday, October 19th On awaking was refreshed by the cry of a ship on the lee beam. She was about half a mile off when I went upon deck, and by signals we ascertained her to be the Grassmere from Liverpool to Calcutta, sixty days out - a fortnight more than we, a somewhat agreeable surprise to those who were desponding themselves into the belief that our voyage was slow. We have been only forty-two days out, so many consider ourselves lucky. We soon passed her, and in three hours she was hull down. Latitude at noon 22.16. We shall be out of the tropics to-morrow. Engaged on the Cockroach all day. After dinner it was read; some articles very much approved o£ Contents: Leading article - 'What shall we do at Canterbury' by FitzGerald. The Captain's Log, containing some stronger hints about ladies staying on deck o'nights. 'On Gardening' No. 5 by Wortley. 'Marine Vegetation' by ditto. A description of the log and line by myself. 'The Idiosyncrasy of Fellow Passengers' by Cholmondeley, very clever and philosophical. 'A Leaf from my Horary' by self. 'Instructions to Captains of the Passenger Ships, from the Association', by Wortley, very good. 'Lament on the Loss of a Jar' supposed to be by Miss Bishop, by Wortley, very good. These, with some extracts from my scrap book, made a good useful number. This number gave us a fright, as there was nothing ready on (today) Saturday at twelve o'clock, and it was expected at three, on the cuddy table. We all resolved to be more diligent and early next week. The wind has fallen towards the evening to almost a dead calm. The Trade winds and the Tropics have almost left us, or vice versa? Now for a long monotonous sail, with nothing to look forward to on this side of Tristan d'Acunha or Desolation Island. Sunday, October 20th Fresh breeze right aft from N.E. Service as usual. During the forenoon a large vessel kept us company about six miles to leeward, steering the same course. As usual we imagined her to be one of our fleet. We lost sight of her in the afternoon. The first albatross appeared today - something like a large gannet - and a Cape hen - a beautiful black, graceful bird, like a large swift. Began an argument with Wortley which lasted all day and at last put me quite out of temper, on the derivation of albatross, I maintaining as it was a black and white bird - 'alba' and 'atra' must be a reasonable derivative; he maintaining that 'alba' and some Spanish word like 'trossa' was more reasonable. Searched in books for it, but to no purpose. This, the first day out of the tropics, is clearly cooler, and in the evening we gladly exchange our linen clothes for pea jackets and cloth trousers. Latitude at noon 24.14 S. Steering S.S.E. with port studding sails set. Right on Tristan d'Acunha about seven, the wind coming dead aft, they were setting starboard studding sails, when the wind chopped suddenly round, blowing up fresh with rain; all the small sails were taken in, and in an hour the ship was going to a fresh breeze as high as she could, but on the same course, fortunately, as before. Heavy rain came on at night and continued till late. Monday, October 21st After a sound sleep, found on waking that there had been a tremendous row overhead. The wind had suddenly blown up in a squall and almost carried away our topgallant mast. The topmast was found afterwards to be sprung and had to be spliced and fished. No harm done, but the noise and bustle of all hands being called on deck to send down topgallant mast and up again, frightened the women in the steerage dreadfully. Margaret came rushing into our cabin exclaiming that the 'ship was going overboard' and they were all lost. However, I was asleep, and did not hear of anything till the morning. Lat. 25.43 S. Hamilton was careless enough to go up the rigging with his French book stuck into the shallow pocket of his pea jacket, and let it fall overboard - a most provoking accident, for after going so far on Arnold's system he would almost have to begin over again with another, and nothing can replace the book for excellence, sense of teaching and learning. Today the air is quite brisk and Octoberish - we are glad to wear pea jackets on deck. Today Margaret Ferguson came into my cabin, and in a flurried angry way, asked whether she was bound to attend to Margaret Wilson's children on board the ship for she got no time to earn any- thing by flowering with attending to them. She had hardly finished her speech when Margaret W. came in and con- fronted her, and after some sulky words from M.F. and recrimination from M.W., I told M.F. that I considered that the return she was bound to make to me for having taken her out was to help Margaret Wilson in every way she could. I asked her if this was not common gratitude for what had been done for her that, only for M. Wilson, she would have been left unprotected and helpless in Ireland, and that she had intreated me to take her when I was quite unwilling to burden myself with so many. She seemed not at all touched, but obstinate and sullen. Margaret declared that she never offers to help her or Robert with the children, and whenever she is asked to do it, she either refuses or does it unwillingly. If she persists in refusing, I can easily punish her by stopping her means of making any money on board, and by withdrawing protection from her when she arrives - but I suspect there are faults on both sides and that at any rate the wound, whatever it is, will soon be healed. Hamilton tells me this evening that it is a false alarm about the loss of the French book - that one of the sailors took it out of his pocket before he went up. Tuesday, October 22nd The weather is very much colder though not much wind, a great deal of motion caused by a heavy swell from the west, ward. Tacked several times, but can make little of no southing against a southerly wind. No observation for latitude this morning. Several Cape hens about the ship in the course of the day. Wednesday, October 23rd Great hustle this morning getting boxes up from the hold. Got up my linen chest and exchanged for a stock of dirty linen, a set of clean shirts, stockings & etceteras. Shot a Cape hen at the stern with a single gun of Woolcot's. Wind allowing us a S.W. course and blowing steadily and cool. Passengers becoming disinclined to sit on deck. Everything seems quite changed and as if we were beginning a new voyage or a new life. But every one much brisker and more cheerful than during the heat. Latitude at noon 26.45. A ship during the forenoon in sight far to windward. In the evening after prayers (which have been altered from nine to half past seven, with advantage) danced a reel till nine o'clock. Thursday, October 24th The ship still in sight but rather nearer, although not within signal distance. The Captain says he is persuaded it must be one of our fleet. Shooting Cape hens and pigeons all the morning, very few hits made. Got out our stock of blankets and gave them an airing - found them not injured either by cockroaches, damp or sea air. Lat. 28.48 S. The Southern Cross has been observed for the last four or five nights. In brilliance and effulgent beauty it does not come up with my anticipations, but the mild elegance of its appear- ance, the singular gracefulness of its shape make it indeed a lovely object in these new heavens. The sky of the southern hemisphere seems to my (uninitiated) eyes more thinly sown with stars than the northern. Orion still appears in the number of constellations. Friday, October 23th A light breeze is drawing aft - stun' sails set. The air fresh and sun not too hot. What we would call a fine October day in England. Course S. ¼ E. Lat. 31.45 S. A day more will biing us to the latitude of the Cape. The birds still keeping us company. A woman in the steerage asked to be allowed to try her hand on some of the muslin patterns. Picked up three Wellington papers containing abuse of E. J. Wakefield - the great charge being that of gross immorality with the natives. Saturday, October 26th Motion so violent in the night that I went up about four o'clock to look at the sea, thinking it must be running heavily. Found it blowing a slapping breeze on our quarter - two stun' sails set and going eleven knots! She kept up this pace all day and the reckoning at noon shews her a distance in the last twenty-four hours of 250 miles. No observa- tion for latitude today. As I write the wind increases to a gale. All the passengers below of course - the steerage ones under hatches. Employed all morning upon the Cockroach and finished the ‘Story of the Charlotte Jane’. A great many Cape pigeons and hens about the ship. Very hard to write in the cabin as everything is rolling about and the deck above is leaking down torrents upon us. Sunday, October 27th Wind lulled from evening till morning and left a tremendous swell in the night, which caused the most violent motion we have yet experienced. A beautiful day with pleasant wind right aft. Lat. 35.18 S. - 201 miles run. Tomorrow morning we are to sight Tristan d'Acunha and to go ashore if possible. Innumerable flocks of birds about the ship today; besides albatross, Cape pigeon and hens and petrels, there was the silver petrel or whalebird in absolutely countless flocks. From the mizzen head I could see sea covered with them afloat and air filled with them on the wing, thickening the atmosphere like gnats on a summer evening. They are like a small part or tern, somewhat more elegant in flight-long, slender and graceful wings, and a silver-grey colour of a beautiful hue. Whether they are truly called whalebirds, I do not know, but it would seem they have something to do with whales, for one was seen spouting about a quarter of a mile off before the birds appeared in considerable numbers. Great speculations about Commodore Glasse and his colony on Tristan d'Acunha. Monday, October 28th This morning found on awaking that all our hopes of Commodore Glasse's fresh beef, goats, vegetables, &c., were doomed to disappointment. We had made so good a course during the night that we had passed Tristan d'Acunha at five o'clock, when it was visible (thirty-five miles off) for a short time. The breeze is sending us on beautifully - quite a sea running and the sun shining brightly, so that it is positively delicious (as we did all day) to sit at the taffrail and watch the sea birds careering over the stern. An immense number appeared - principally albatrosses and Cape pigeons, and in our anxiety to provide the Doctor with a specimen, we shot at many, with a view to getting them to fall on deck. Some used lines of worsted to entangle them as they flew and one was nearly caught in this way. Latitude today 36.50 S. Longitude 11.32 W. - running S. Easterly. I shall commence herewith to note the longitudes chiefly, as they will shew best our progress. The Captain is in good spirits about our progress and predicts forty days more as our term of imprisonment. After tea, a quiet rubber of whist with the Captain, Mr and Mrs Mountfort. Tuesday, October 29th No sleep last night on account of the tremendous rolling of the vessel. From a brief doze I was awakened by a shower composed of the following materials - a can of sperm-oil, a can of spirits of wine, a bottle of ink, a bottle of eau-de, cologne, my watch & a shoe, all of which had been packed, as I thought, securely before I went to bed. Nothing, how, ever, was open but the bottle of eauade-cologne, and therefore no harm was done. Two or three heavier - rolls than ordinary seemed to bring every smashable article on the ship down at once. I could hear boxes, casks & heavy things giving way in every direction and people striking lights and looking timidly after their lives and properties. The gale continued to increase till and after breakfast-time. After breakfast it did some damage to braces and halyards and the top-sails were double reefed, mainsail furled, jib taken in and stay-sail set - in fact all made snug. Wind and rain came in heavy squalls and otherwise, and as I write the motion is almost too great to make more than an attempt successful. However, we are going on our course as straight as we can go - and almost as quick - 210 miles since yesterday to the S.E. Lat. 38.20 S., Long. 6.48 W. This, the first day of heavy gales, produces something strange and uncomfortable every hour. Dinner was an awful scramble, plates and dishes falling about, of course, but that was the least. You were as likely to find your neighbour in your plate as your plate in your neighbour's lap, or your lap in your neighbour's, as any other arrangement. Thus, part of my dinner was eaten on the floor and part on the table - you must eat what you can get and for small dishes must exercise the art of harpooning and shooting flying, as potatoes, salt and bread, &c., come swimming past. Very cold and uncomfortable on deck, but the sight of the waves grand. Wednesday, October 30th The wind nor motion abated not a whit during the night, and therefore very little sleep. A good deal of rain this morning and bitterly cold. Breakfast and dinner the same scramble as yesterday. The soup is made thick with potatoes and doughnuts and is very good. Single simple dishes are put down by themselves - spare plates, tumblers and everything else on a swing tray; but even so, every time the ship rolls there is a roll down the table. The plates are stopped short by the wooden divisions, but knives and spoons clear them and go on their course. The wind is not so high (having our topgallant sail set), but it is the heavy swell after the gale of yesterday which does this. Margaret Ferguson, having finished a beautiful embroidered muslin baby's cap, I promised, in the hearing of all the young married couples, to give it as a prize to the first Charlotte Jane child. The ladies complain much of weariness caused by being obliged to bend to every motion of the vessel in order to keep their balance. Lat. 38.41 S. Long. 2.10 W. Distance run, 213 miles in a beautiful course. Thursday, October 31st Halloweve The wind moderated in the night, or rather the swell abated and we enjoyed a quiet sleep. Prayers for the first time in the cuddy on account of the cold. Passengers of all grades were admitted there. Practising going on at albatrosses all morning. Latitude at noon 39.11 S., Longitude 0.33 E. East of Greenwich at last! In the evening entertained a select party of twelve in our little den – Vingt-un, musical box as an interlude during supper of bread & jam & sherry & seltzer-water, winding up with a few songs. Present, James and Mrs Fisher and Stephen Fisher, Miss Hooper, Mr and Mrs C. Mountfort, two Bishops and two Miss Bishops, Wortley, Cholmondeley and our (three) selves. Fifteen in all. Very merry, though mirth somewhat damped by the illness of Mr Bowen next door. He has a severe attack of asthma. Friday, November 1st A real November day, though it has no right to be so; foggy, wet and cold. The wind got up during the night and we have a repetition of the rolling and discomfort of the beginning of the week. Took out my gun and found it spotted with rust. Employed forenoon cleaning it. Heard at dinner that the Captain had been alarmed by the sight of a waterspout within a hundred yards of the ship. Though he took in as much sail as he could in a hurry, it would (as he said) have ripped the masts out of the ship if it had not fortunately passed out of our tracks. Captain took FitzGerald's two to one in bottles of champagne that we would not cast anchor in Lyttelton harbour within ninety-eight days from Plymouth. Wortley bet me three to one in the same coin that we would not be there in ninety-five days, which I took, as it suits my belief, and I would almost make an even bet about it. Thinking a good deal of home today, which is unusual with me, I suppose because we have so much to look forward to that we have no time to look back. No observation today. Wind W.N.W. and weather colder and colder. Toward night fine with squalls. Saturday, November 2nd Very boisterous. Lat. 39.46 S., Long. 9-45 E., 237 miles by log run in the last day. Two days more are to bring us to the Cape. Mrs Horrell got a bad fall on deck, which made her insensible and cut her face. A whale passed the ship within a few yards. Engaged on Cockroach No. VII all morning. It contained 'A Paper on Cookery' by FitzGerald, 'On Gardening', No. 6, by Wortley, on 'Alba- trosses and Birds' by the Doctor, 'Sheep-farming' by Chol- mondeley, 'A Defence of the Association on Points Impugned of and Animadverted on in a Former Number', by Fitz., divers pieces of poetry serious and comic - one particularly good by FitzGerald. Read Sam Slick all evening. Passengers playing chess, cards, German tactics and other puzzles and reading and working in the cuddy. Many live the evenings in their cabins, and many are now confined to them against their will by colds and other consequences of our sudden burst from hot into cold weather. Sunday, November 3rd Our Lat. 40.10 S., Long. 14.26 E. 225 miles run by the slate. Course S.E. Service, the morning Liturgy only performed in the cuddy and Sacrament, which was to have been administered, was postponed. The squalls not so frequent today, but high, and the sea is tempestuous and produced most disagreeable motion. Last night a sausage of concen- trated soup, several pounds weight, fell on my nose as I lay in bed, stunning and frightening me not a little. Monday, November 4th We are today abreast of the Cape in Latitude 40.57 S., Longitude 19.8 E. Distancg run by log 197 miles. Our proximity to the land sensibly influences the temperature of the air, as today it is quite mild and pleasant on deck. Breeze and sea moderate. The 'young men' have had a 'kick up' with the Doctor, for which he stopped their rations; but afterwards, finding himself in the wrong, countermanded his decree. The patience of the bird-catchers at the stern was today rewarded by the capture of a Cape pigeon and a stormy petrel. A line hung out astern with a cork floating at the end, was wielded by the angler to catch the birds as they flew across. Tuesday, November 5th A great deal of motion last night, though very calm and therefore the more intolerable. Towards morning the rolling abated, but it had been as violent as on any occa- sion since our gale. The day is much warmer, reminding us all of our good friends the tropics. Towards the afternoon and evening the wind is fresh and fair, going eight and a half knots. Latitude at noon 41.24 S., Longitude 22.22 E. Distance run 193 miles. The Captain has doubled his bet with FitzGerald, backing the event of our getting in within ninety-eight days from Plymouth. This morning early the sailors on the forecastle harpooned a porpoise which they cut up for food and oil. It weighed about a hundredweight and measured five feet in length. The Doctor very eloquent upon its merit. We caught with the line today another Cape pigeon, but let it go again. The Doctor amusing himself stuffing the other and the stormy petrel. FitzGerald took a good sketch of them. The emigrants made a Guy today and, as usual, made him an instrument of extortion- putting a tin in his hand to collect money on the poop. Made two discoveries the last few days: No. 1: That Harvey, one of the sailors, sailed in the Hecate with Coz. Hamilton, of whom he talks as if of some fiend of darkness. No. 2: That our old cook was cook to the Essex on her voyage with the 87th. I wish I had known these things before to write them home. Wednesday, November 6th A most lovely morning and day, such as in an early summer in England. Almost too hot to sit long in the sun. Amused myself by idling over the stern 'fishing for birds. A Cape pigeon was caught, but not by me. The albatrosses keep prudently out of the way. The birds at present in sight are the wandering white and the dusky albatrosses, the stormy and the silver petrel or whale bird, the Cape hen or giant petrel, also the ice bird - a large kind of silver petrel almost the size of a Cape hen, with white on the belly. Some consternation excited on deck by the fall of a very heavy block from the mainyard to the deck. It fell on the shoulder of the carpenter within an inch of his skull and within a couple of feet of Hamilton as he was working at the same bench. Andy, who has been suffering; from some affection of the heart, is now much better. Every one in good spirits, and the vessel with gentle motion, keeps us so by carrying us on quietly at eight or nine knots. Lat. at noon, 41.24. Long. 26, 155 miles run. Thursday, November 7th A fine morning, rather colder. An immense number of Cape pigeons, albatrosses and other birds flying about the stern. It was sometimes very calm, giving us an oppor- tunity to catch them. Accordingly a fine albatross was caught, measuring nine feet from tip to tip. The way to catch an albatross is to procure an ordinary cod hook, rather strong and large, and bind it on, however roughly, to a very stout line (we used the log line). Put a piece of pork rind upon the hook, and about six inches above, tie on a chip of wood about half a foot in length to keep it afloat. When the ship is going slowly through the water, let out the line to a short distance, the Cape pigeons will hover round the attractive chip and perhaps settle in the water beside it. As sure as the Cape pigeons settle the albatrosses will settle too. As soon as you see him hovering and throwing down his legs to alight, which he does in a most ungainly way, slacken away your line so as to float beside him at rest. Give him time and plenty of line and he will pouch it. Then haul him in with a steady pull - it will require three or four hands to pull him up. N.B.-You will never catch one while the bait is in motion, towing after the ship. When Cape pigeons are plentiful astern, a stout fishing rod with a very light line towing a cork (to steady it) will catch by the wings as many as you choose. Latitude today at noon, 42.15 S. Longitude 29.57 E Distance run by log, 158 miles. At breakfast today gave Wortley two to one that we should be in within 105 days. Forgot to mention among the wonders of the deep today, a school of black whales into which we got about eleven o'clock. They were spouting and rolling sometimes within two or three hundred yards of the ship. Debate at dinner about the word 'prejudice', FitzGerald arguing against me that it of necessity implied opinions gathered from our forefathers. Had no Johnson to refer to. Captain bet a shilling all round with each that they would not spell correctly 'The cobbler's pony went to the saddler's stall to buy a saddle and ate a potato'. Wortley and FitzGerald both lost, though the sentence could hardly be simpler. Friday, November 8th A fine day, freshened by temperature and breeze. Lat. 42.28, Long. 32.32 E. Distance run 122½ miles. Hamilton busy making a machine to twist twine. Discovered last night that Mr Barker knows the Scuvens very well. Told me that they were now living at Rouen, and that Johnny S. is house surgeon at University Hospital, trying for an East India Company's surgency, but not likely to get it. The daughters still unmarried! Saturday, November 9th Strong gale increasing all day and very cold. In the afternoon furled mainsail and double-reefed topsails. Lat. 42.55 S., Long. 36.28 E. Engaged all morning upon Cockroach No. VIII, which came out rather thin in cones- quence of the weather. Sunday, November 10th After a stormy night, wind in the morning abated and fore and main studding-sails set. The motion still very violent as the wind is aft, and passengers very crusty in consequence. The Captain laid up with rheumatism and six hands on the sick list, chiefly with 'Cape fever'. At noon Latitude 43•39 S., Longitude (by account) 49.55 E., 204 miles run to the S.E. Service (morning only) without Communion service or sermon. Promised the Captain that the next time the Charlotte Jane comes into New Zealand I would engage to supply him with potatoes for his voyage, whenever he was going. Monday, November 11th A stormy night with much disagreeable motion. So anxious about things getting adrift that it is hard to compose myself to sleep. Rumours this morning of an accident having occurred by the going out of the binnacle lights. In the darkness the man at the wheel could see nothing and let the ship come to. Everything was taken aback, but fortu- nately nothing of consequence was carried away. Not as cold as yesterday. The sun sometimes shining pleasantly enough. At noon Latitude 44.17 S., Longitude 45.24 E. Distance run by log 214 miles S.E. Volunteered for the Chief Mate's night watches for a week - during the sickness of some of the hands. Tuesday, November 12th Kept the middle watch with Wortley and Chas. Bowen from twelve to four, and then summoned Henry and Hamilton, who with Shrimpton and Croasdaile Bowen, relieved us. The four hours, though very cold, passed away tolerably quick and comfortable; had good wrappers on and the night was fine. It is worth keeping a watch to feel how much you enjoy a really good sleep after it. Latitude today 44.39 S., Longitude 49.56 E., 187 miles run. We are abreast (a little to the northward) of a small group of islands called Crozier's Islands. The Captain still laid up in his cabin with a bad leg and reported to be very sulky. He thinks we have kept far enough to the southward. Formed today the design of writing a 'Manual for Passengers', to embody my own experience and that of others, especially ladies, on board. Wednesday, November 13th Last night kept watch from eight to twelve p.m. and four to eight a.m. Very cold with occasional snow showers. The morning watch not unpleasant, as there was plenty to do in washing decks and pumping, besides a little trim- ming of the sails. Rather sleepy, however, all day in consequence. Almost calm. This afternoon a most pro- voking accident occurred. A beautiful colonist's knife, given to me by Arabella Prescott, slipped from the hen coop on which I had carelessly laid it, and a lurch of the vessel carried it overboard. Quite sulky all the evening in con- sequence, and almost determined not to keep watch tonight; but I am shamed into it by the others. Lat 44.52 S., Long. 53.11 E. About ninety miles north of Possession Island, one of Crozier's group. A most ridiculous incident occurred early this morning. I had turned in at twelve o'clock and with my brain full of sails and ropes slept uneasily. About three I got up in an amazing fuss, sat up in my bed to 'haul in the drawer-sheets' in a hurry. What were the drawer-sheets but one of the unfortunate little fig trees, which sat in its pot beside my bed. I hauled in with a vengeance and was only well awake to find I had pulled it out of the pot and covered the place with earth. Thursday, November 14th Middle watch last night and very cold. Lat. 45.26 S., Long. 56.14. Calculating this place to be 5,000 miles from Port Lyttelton, an average rate of 150 miles will take us in Thirty-two days – ninety-nine days from Plymouth. A stove has been lighted in the cuddy but it is a great nuisance with its smoke and close smell The cold is really intense and the misery caused by there being no refuge from it is widely spread through cuddy, intermediate and steerage. Friday, November 15th Kept the evening and morning watch last night and am beginning to get sick of it, besides that, my eyes do not stand well the exposure. The morning was very stormy and our watch came in for furling mainsail and reefing fore and mizzen topsails. No observation for latitude or longitude but 212 miles are shewn as run by the log - running straight upon Kerguelen's Land - and that to avoid it we must haul to the westward. Course changed from S.E. to S.E. ½ S. Saturday, November 16th After a very wet night rose to receive the jeers of fellow passengers at having 'skulked' the watch. Cold and fine and light breeze. Lat. 46.27, Long. 64.57 E. 167 miles run - an ½ E. course has taken us out of the way of Desolation Island. Everyone looking restless with the cold. No Cockroach today - we having agreed that it was better to discontinue it than serve it up feebly. Sunday November 17th Thick and blowing weather with an uncomfortable cross sea. No good observation for latitude, though in this ticklish place everything depends upon our latitude. By approximation, we place ourselves on the chart in Latitude 47.0, Longitude 69.9 - 177 miles run in S E. ½ S. and S.E. by E. course. Every day's weather proves to the Cap- tain, and is evidence to me, that this very southward course, though it shortens the degrees of longitude, brings us most uncertain weather, besides being bitterly cold. Service today in full, with a long sermon, though there has been perhaps more motion and discomfort than any Sunday since we left Plymouth. Bowen is the only one of the 'afterguard' who has kept to his resolution of keeping a week's night watches. Last night he was aloft, reefing fore and mainsails. The Captain gives us twenty days to be abreast of Bass's Straits, but as we are considerably more than half way there from the Cape and are only thirteen days from thence, there is no reason why we should be so long. Monday, November 18th Calm and cold. By our observations we are passed Desolation Island in Latitude 41.18, Longitude 72.43 E. 150 miles run. Ten days will bring us probably abreast of Australia and into warmer weather. A curious accident occurred to me this afternoon. One does not imagine them, selves liable on board ship to be tossed by a cow, but nevertheless such was the nature of my accident. I had gone into the cow's house and remained coaxing and petting her on the most affectionate terms - she licking me and pre- tending to be the best friend possible. But when I climbed upon the partition to get in front of her, while kneeling thereupon with my rear exposed to her face, she, as if sensible of the extreme indignity, ripped up my right leg with every- thing upon it, including the skin, for about a foot in length. I came down in rags and extreme terror for I thought that my thigh must have been cruelly laid open. But when I got down to my cabin, behold it was only a scratch, and a torn trouser and shirt was the only injury done. Great laughing at me for the accident by the cuddy folk to whom even this absurd accident is a godsend. Tuesday, November 19th This battledore and shuttlecock weather still continues, during the night and this morning it has been blowing a gale, harder than we have ever yet experienced, and a foul wind too, from the N.E. and E.S.E. We had to lie to from two a.m. till ten this morning and drifted away back. How- ever our observations place us a degree and a half to the East of yesterday. Lat. 47.52, Long. 74.29 E. The cold today is terrible. Wednesday, November 20th Blowing moderately all day with thick Scotch mist. Passengers chiefly in their own cabins. Engaged all morning in trying to fill up crevices through which the water poured last night on my head, so that i had to put up an umbrella towards morning. The cabin is in a most leaky condition - everything is getting spoiled by wet and no means of drying them. Henry in bed all day with shivering symptoms. He took a Dover's powder and wrapped himself up warm. No observation today, but we are supposed to have made four degrees of easting and to be about in Longitude 79 or thereabouts. Bridger up on deck today for the first time after his face ache, in hearty spirits. Thursday, November 21st Very cold and wind steady. A fall of snow occurred at different times of the day, but for the most part fine. Had a talk with Fawcett, the shepherd, about the management of sheep. Mrs Derry was safely delivered this morning, about four o'clock, of a son and heir, and is doing well. Great calculations at noon about our probable arrival - calculated that at the rate of 164 miles a day, the Captain would win his bet and bring us in in twenty-four days from this latitude. Long. 83.39. Distance 203 miles. Henry today better, but stayed in bed all day eating slops. The wet is not so bad today in our cabin but that of yesterday has left every, thing damp and sticky. Half of my bed is unsleepably damp, and the ship rolling sends me uncomfortably squash into it every other minute. Friday, November 22nd The same weather squalls of snow and rain, yet not so very cold. Willy McCormic.k says 'It's no half cold enough'. I hear his intentions are, as soon as he has gathered £300 or so, to return home by New York. We have made today a slashing run of 230 miles - five degrees and a half. Lat. 48.26 S., Long. 89.12. We got a charcoal stove into the cabin today, which has given it a more wholesome feel. Henry got up at the usual hour and seems quite well. Saturday, November 23rd Cold as usual, no perceptible change in either wind or weather. The Cape pigeons have almost left us - very few to be seen after the ship now. In their stead and in the same numbers, with equal boldness and voracity, appear the bird we have hitherto called the 'ice bird' - grey, with white bellies, somewhat larger than the Cape pigeon. We decided today on the plan for our house, and Andy and Hamilton have set to to make a model of it. Lat. 48.34, Long. 93.12 E. 195 miles S.E. by E. which the variation reduces to E. nearly. In the evening the wind increases to a gale. Every- thing made snug in consequence of the threatenings of the barometers, which are at hurricane levels. Mrs Derry made application today to have her child named after the Captain - Alexander - to which he graciously gave consent! A rubber of whist in the evening. Sunday, November 24th Our fears of an unquiet night were not realized - we had a tolerably easy voyage during it. Today service in the cuddy and a sermon, in which Mr Kingdon took occasion to allude to the indifferent attendance at daily morning and evening prayers. This is caused, in my opinion, by the length of the church service which indisposes people to submit to con- strained attitudes for the time it lasts during the rolling and pitching. Family prayers would have always been preferred and would have been better, if not well attended. Latitude at noon 48.39 S., Longitude 99.10 E. Distance run 208 miles S.E. by E. Calculations are being made closer and closer every day. Some sanguine arithmeticians give us only fifteen days more, and if our next fortnight's run presents the average of this week, we shall at any rate, be near Stewart's Island. Monday, November 25th Fresh breeze with some good pitching, causing to some of the ladies a return of seasickness. Got up from the hold (where they had fallen through an airhole) a book and a prayer book of Hamilton's. Mountfort consults me on family jars. I prescribe a strong dose by way of covenant. Andy and Hamilton all day at work on the model house, which has progressed to the wall plate of the front. Lat. 48.52, Long. 104.22. 208 miles run. Captain’s average per day to bring us in in ninety-eight days reduced to 151 miles; mine for ninety-five reduced to 178. Margaret and Willy both in spirits caused by a prospect of 'the wee house'. Tuesday, November 26th Almost calm this morning, continuing with a light wind occasionally during the day. Mountfort brought down a dusky albatross with his gun, and he was secured on deck for the Doctor's purposes. House-building going on gaily; deputations from the steerage arrive momently to gaze. I met Andy today escorting a party to see the model in course of building. Forgot to notice before this the birth of a new journal called the Sea Pie - resting for support upon a variety of articles, semi-burlesque in style, highly seasoned with not the most amiable personality. It is supposed to emanate almost solely from the brain of the elder Mountfort, though it has the impudence to profess to be the production of 'the Ladies' at which presumption many of the real ladies are most indig- nant. Latitude today 49.6 S., Longitude 108.29. 160 miles run. Lately round the stove in the middle cabin there have been religious discussions, in which Mr Kingdon and others, but especially Mr K. are, at any rate, neither of low church nor no church principles. Wednesday, November 27th Found this morning that the wind had chopped round to the N.E. and E., dead against us. All day we drove to the South with but half a point of easting. Towards evening it came on to blow a whole gale, with snow and intensely, unendurable cold - regular Cape Horn weather. Lat. 49.38 S., Long. 110.39 E. 95 miles run in our true course. Today C. Mountfort put the finishing stroke to his business and is safe. Thursday, November 28th The easterly gale blowing as hard and as cold as ever- lying to the whole day and drifting to the N.W. - (pleasant, very!). No observation but our course has been S.W. - what there has been of it. Friday, November 29th Wind fell light this morning and, gradually coming round to the N.W. fell calm - so calm, that the birds- albatrosses, &c. - sat under our stern and were caught easily. Five dusky albatrosses (Diomedea piliginosa) were caught with hooks. A goodly assembly of passengers on the poop while the sun was out. Took ten to one from the Captain that we would not be in in ninety-five days after all. Our distance &c., was hushed up, but it appears we have made three degrees in the last three days. The rafters are placed on our model house. Saturday, November 30th A cold and cheerless day, rendered more uncomfortable by our feeling that we are not upon our course. The ship barely keeps S.S.E., which, besides taking us out of our straight course, is taking us to more cold - more we can hardly bear now. It is utter misery - what between the cold of the windy deck, the smoke of the stove in the cuddy, and the darkness of our little cabin, we have positively no place to go to. Everyone in their misery and discomfort rendered ill-tempered, is making everyone else ten times more un- comfortable. Lat. 50.58 S., Long. 114 E., very nearly abreast of Cape Leuwin, the first of the great Australian land. The second number of the upstart Sea Pie appeared today - miserably bumptious, presuming on its good-natured recap- tion last week, and miserably personal, dealing with disgusting familiarity with jokes on the steward, cook & officers of the ship. Forgot yesterday to record the appearance of two puffins or mackerel-cocks, diving and croaking, as if in Strangford Lough. Today other strange birds were seen, which puzzles the Captain, as he says such are never seen at any great distance from land. Sunday, December 1st At first the usual fog and cold, with but little wind from E.S.E. After service the fog cleared away, the sun came out over the calm sea and we had a breath of Spring weather. All appeared invigorated by the change of temperature, sudden and unlooked for as it was. Our spirits were further raised by the wind towards evening coming up in gentle puffs - with a promise of more - from N.W., N. and N.E. Yet there is but little as I write at eleven o'clock. Everyone is very low and sulky during this prolonged delay, when our expectations had been strung to the top of our bent. During service a penguin was seen swimming near the ship, which excited the Doctor prodigiously and made us imagine our, selves either near land or ice. Lat. 51.50, Long. 115.20. Monday, December 2nd Wind from N.E. barely enabling us to hold our East course, nevertheless we did so all day at from five to seven knots. The house being finished, Andy begins the back premises. Took three to one from Wortley that we should not be in in 100 days. Mrs Bowen very ill all day. Lat. 51.38 S., Long. 117.27. One of the three remaining partridges died today, leaving two only, one of which is in a precarious state; two of the pheasants are moved to the long boat for change of air. Tuesday, December 3rd Fine breeze in the morning keeping us barely on our course. At dinner the joyful sound of 'square the yards' was heard - the wind having come abeam, at which point (N.) it continued increasing till evening. We are, therefore, steering our course (E. ½ S.) easily at nine and a half knots. Everyone rejoicing and lively. Heard today rumours from the steerage of a combination among the emigrants for high wages. A married woman (name not mentioned) has resolved not to hire for less (keep included) than £40 a year! They seem to be a 'bad lot' (with few exceptions) on board this ship- chiefly the off-scourings of the small mechanics of large towns - up to all sorts of meanness and petty pride - knowing too well the arts of separating the interests of employer and employed. They meanly fear a combination of the land, owners to reduce wages, instead of trusting to the right feeling of gentlemen and the favour of fortune. Andy speaks very ill of them all-indeed, by the contrast presented, I have reason to be proud of my lot. No observations today, but we place ourselves somewhere in Longitude 122, Latitude 51.30, after a run of 190 miles – thirty-eight miles to a degree. Stuffed a hollow tooth of FitzGerald's with Mr Barnett's stuffing secundum artem. Wednesday, December 4th Fresh breeze from N.E., lying a good course. At noon got good observations, shewing us to be more to the south- ward and eastward than we guessed. Lat. 52.28, Long. 128.27, having done six degrees and a half. Steered afterwards E. and N. ½ N. A rumpus arose today among the emigrants who refused to clean, for divers reasons, which they alleged in divers long stories - the real reason being a jealousy of Allen, one of the constables. Things had nearly got very bad - the Captain had to threaten them with irons and putting out the galley fire, but afterwards, when the state of the case was better understood by the Captain, a misdemeanour was brought home to Allen and he was distnissed from the par- ticular office in which he had given offence. The emigrants then returned to their duty. In the evening I had Robert and Willy and Co. in my cabin and made a proposal to give each couple £30 a year with their food and lodging, to Margaret food and lodging also for any girl to help her with the children. They seemed satisfied and willing to agree, but I let them go without giving me an answer that they might sleep over it. Margaret, I thought, looked a little disappointed - having probably been most awake to the nonsense lately talked about wages in the steerage. Thursday, December 5th The smoke in the cuddy began a headache, which ended in a bilious sickness, from which I retired to bed after dinner and slept till evening when I was very sick. Slept badly, wakefulness aggravated to the intelligence (by steward) that the people are very much down in the mouth about my proposal. Am therefore the more glad that I did not close at once with them Took counsel from Andy, in which he proved the inadequacy of £30 a year they having left nearly that behind them. He thought they would be content with £35 for McCormicks and £40 for Wilsons. He proved that Margaret was worth double the wages of Jane McCormick. Lat. 52.36 S., Long. 133.26 E. Friday, December 6th Stayed in bed (having dosed myself) till after breakfast, and when I got up, Hamilton turned in with the same symptoms - headache and immediate sickness. Others in the ship having similar complaints. A beautiful day with the wind nearly aft! Steering N.E. by E. ½ E. Latitude at noon 51.30 S., Longitude 138.50, distance run 200 miles, being five degrees of longitude and one of northing. Everyone in great spirits, as a week of this wind will almost take us to our land. The model house nearly finished. No more news about the 'disappointed peoples'. Saturday, December 7th Last night was most tempestuous - almost the hardest gale we have yet experienced. All hands up all night reefing topsails, &c. However we went rapidly on all day and made 220 miles. Lat. 50.45, Long. 144.26. Towards evening it blew very hard with rain from N.W., but at the worst it changed to clear sky and wind from W. The temperature much milder. Cape pigeons have left us entirely, and alba- trosses and mollymawks are our only bird companions. Today we are ninety-one days out - three calendar months exactly, having left September 7th. Sunday, December 8th A fine morning. Wind from W.N.W. nearly right aft; the temperature on deck beginning to be pleasant. Full service in the cuddy. At noon Latitude 49.45 S., Longi- tude 149.49 E., 222 miles run. In the evening the wind came right aft with squalls. Mrs Hughes, one of the emi- grants, appeared on deck covered with boils - many believe that she has the scurvy. Two or three cases of sickness forward. One man (Hill) in a decline. Fawcett with a bloody flux. Monday, December 9th A beautiful morning with fair wind, but more forward than yesterday (N.N.W.). Having gone ten knots nearly the whole night, we expected a good run. The chart accordingly gave us 230 miles! to the E.N.E. ½ N. Lat. 48.54 S., Long. 155.27 E. The deck crowded with happy faces - everyone looking cheerful at the near prospect of even seeing land. The Captain confidently expects to do so on or about Wednesday at noon, and that we may do it yet in ninety- eight days, which will expire by Sunday at noon. The house rapidly approaches completion and perfection. Yesterday I promised Willy McCormick a sovereign if the 'coo' was adjudged to be in the best condition of all the five coming out. Tuesday, December 10th Arabella's birthday. A lovely day with the wind right aft, going from eight to ten knots. Lat. 48.14 S., Long. 160.20 E. We ran 185 miles only in consequence of delay caused by both topsails (main and fore) having been carried away slightly yesterday, necessitating a shift of fore topsail and some repairing on the main. The Captain is beginning to be nervous about approaching the 'Snares', some rocks lying to the southward of the 'Traps'. A very little error in the numerous calculations required might throw us upon them - so that he intends to go cautiously. However, to-morrow afternoon we confidently hope to see Stewart's Island. Wind today W. and W.S.W., which would take us up nicely. Yesterday and today the Captain suspected soundings from the colour of the water, but Bridger thinks differently. On the fore topmast crosstrees with Wortley looking out for land or ships, but saw none. Wednesday, December 11th Again a lovely morning, tho' slightly sharpened by the wind, a good earnest of New Zealand weather. Wind about N.W. All eyes on the lookout for land. Mr Bridger reports having seen a sparrowhawk early this morning. The Doctor, on coming on deck, declared he smelt the shore and sea- weed. Wortley added 'and bathing boxes'. The cow was heard to low loudly during the night, in fact every sign rife, but the sight still withheld. At noon the Captain's confab' with the Mate was prolonged, and the chart, when it appeared, was not marked with the course - an un- precedented circumstance. There seems to be a difference of thirty miles or more between the position by Chronometer and by the Lunar Distance taken yesterday. If Chronometer be correct, we are only about sixty miles off Stewart's Island and close to the Snares if they exist. On the fore topmast cross- trees with Wortley, straining our eyes to no purpose. Bet the Captain a bottle of wine we should see land before midnight. At noon Latitude 47.27, Longitude 165.30. Distance run about 206 miles. Yesterday I exhibited the model house in the cuddy, where it was the 'cynosure of all eyes'. After dinner to the fore crosstrees again, to be again mocked by imagination and again disappointed. Bowen on the maintop. The poop full. About half past four the Captain got up his glass and looked out anxiously into what he called 'the loom of the land'. The expression was soon in everyone's mouth, and 'looms of land' were soon seen in all directions. At length, at five o'clock, I was looking out more forward than anyone else, and as the vessel canted a little to one side, I called out to the Captain that there was land, right beyond the bowsprit. He put up his glass and pronounced it to be so at once. Every one was soon in the mizzen rigging trying to get a peep, and I ran to the forecastle to assure myself and to announce it to those there who might have seen it long before. Excitement was now in everyone's face and gesture. The forecastle was soon crowded by poop passengers, vying and jostling with the emigrants for a peep. Wortley Bowen & I got up into the crosstrees and waved and shouted with joy as we looked at it from thence gradually becoming clearer and better defined. The appearance was that of a clump of high hills, divided at half their extent by a deep gap. Soon land was seen in, distinctly to the northward of this, and the whole became before evening moulded into one uniform appearance, match- ing well my anticipations of Stewart's Island. One peak of singular conical form, a true sugar loaf cone, rises, with others less sharp and high, plumb from the lower ground. By eight o'clock, at which it became dusk, or half past nine, when it became dark (moonlight excepted) we were nearly abreast of the land. The Captain, however, as the wind was light and fair, determined to make a run all night between the 'Trap' rocks and Stewart's Island. The moon was bright and the land pretty distinct, so we ran on quietly. By twelve it was quite calm with a ground swell - two lookouts on the forecastle and a reef in all the topsails. So, being all snug and likely to be abreast of the land all night, I turned in and was called at daylight. We have thus accomplished the voyage from land to land in ninety-four days. On Tuesday at twelve o'clock it would be ninety-four days since we left Plymouth, but as we have lost about twelve hours in the course of our voyage, we have a right to add that on, so that the ninety-four days would not be complete till Wednesday at noon. Then, as we saw the last of England six hours (at least) after leaving it, we may calculate the ninety-four days 'from land to land' as ended at six o'clock on Wednesday - we having seen the land at five o'clock on that day. About ten minutes before seeing land, the Captain asked me if I would double the bet about seeing land before midnight, to which I agreed at once, and so gained! Thursday, December 12th At daybreak I was on deck and as the sun rose the land looked lovely. The boys agreed with me it was very like the Isle of Man coast from Castletown to Douglas, only that the low hills and precipitous cliffs along the shore are here densely wooded. Great disputes were rife as to whether the wood was forest or not. It seems to me that there are large trees in the interior, far up the hillsides, dwarfed gradually as they approach and line (as they do) the water's edge. No signs of human habitations. Dead leaves and seaweed in great patches drift past the ship. The wind is almost gone at eight o'clock. One specimen of gull has been seen this morning about the ship - the only other birds are the Cape pigeons. This morning they have replaced the cutter on the davits, and the strain has opened a seam which lets the water, as they wash decks, come in streams into the cabin. The only sign of the 'Traps' was breakers about nine miles out to sea - bearing E.S.E. by a very remarkable pillar of rock upon a headland which seems, with another headland opposite, to form the entrance to a harbour. After breakfast the wind came to E.N.E., foul of course - and we stood for a while from land in a thick fog. On the other tack we hoped to weather S.E. Cape, the eastern point of Stewart's Island. Sun and air delicious in quality. Hosts innumerable of Cape pigeons. A bronze pigeon and a seal were seen and remain about the ship. We stood in for Foveaux's Straits till two o'clock, keeping close to the land on the south side. We recognized by the map as we passed them successively - S.E. Cape, Port Adventure & Port Somes, distinguished by the remarkable Saddle' Hill overtopping it. From two till four we stood out again, then tacked to the northward and were becalmed, remaining so nearly all night. Friday, December 13th The wind remained hard and fresh to the same foul quarter and we stood out from six a.m. to twelve on a losing tack to the eastward, lying about E. and by S. Land is out of sight and the dreary monotony of sea and sky is again felt, causing now aggravated despair from the short glimpse we had yesterday. No one now imagines that we shall be in port before Sunday evening. However the climate makes up for all disappointment. The day as not as clear as yesterday, but the air is mild and fresh; and when the sun comes out is positively luxurious. We stood on towards shore till five o'clock, and then, when within a couple of miles, tacked and stood off again. The coast, with cliff and forest, was most romantically beautiful - high lands, thickly wooded, un- dulatmg in every curve, interspersed with patches of sward of a delicious green. A variety of cavernous indentations marked the cliffs. The sunset behind them was truly magnificent. As we stood off from land, we felt every now and then a puff of a very warm wind, at least ten degrees warmer than the wind which was then blowing. At the same time we saw on shore the smoke of what appeared a huge fire; this might have caused the heat if it had been directly to windward, which it certainly was not. However, there was evidently much heat on and in towards the land, for between us and the hill-line we could distinctly see the 'reverberations' (as I believe they are called) of heat flickering the air. No one seemed able to account for the hot puffs. Lightning was seen in the same direction as evening closed. Wind about N.N.E. We had not gone far from land when a sail was descried about ten miles to leeward, at first coming up full with square yards, as if she had a leading wind through the straits; afterwards she stood off and on, as if baffled like ourselves. A mad scheme was set on foot for going on shore here and travelling through the bush past Otago territory up to Canterbury. Wortley, Bowen & Cholmondeley the chief instigators. Fortunately we did not stand in near enough to the shore to make it convenient to land them. Saturday, December 14th All night we stood on a losing tack off the land, and in the morning watch stood again towards a headland which we hardly hoped to weather. Before we had got in far the wind shifted a little and we at last stood our course, N.N.E., up the land. After an hour or two the wind came more free and at last dead aft. The headland, we discovered by latitude observations, to be Cape Saunders in the Otago Settlement, which discovery, as we had imagined ourselves to be at least 100 miles further to the south, was the greatest possible relief. We looked at the Otago coast with much interest. Smoke from fires here and there on the shore and more inland were the earliest evidences of civilization which our glimpses of New Zealand had yet afforded us. We pronounced them to be the 'clearing' fires of the settlers along the Molyneux, Clutha, Taieri & Otago proper, districts, which we recog- nized successively by the map as we passed them. The most conspicuous objects from the sea are two bold hills - one the 'Saddle' Hill, the other the 'Green' Hill of the map. They are near one another and stand prominent from the plain. The character of the country, what George Robins would have called 'parklike'. The scenery diversified by hill, dale, wood level grass On the whole we were much delighted with its appearance. The emigrants seem enchanted with the appear- ance of the country - especially Andy. The excursion scheme is totally given up of course. Today I engaged Robert and Margaret Wilson at £4o a year and novæ tabulæ! She to do the washing and attendance upon us. At eight o'clock we stand a good. N.N.E. course-stun' sails set, and wind from S.W. - but reported at nine to be drawing forward and the scud coming from the N.E. over the moon. No sight of the other ship the whole day. Sunday, December 15th When I went on deck there was no sign of land but about ten o'clock the high lands of Banks' Peninsula were discerned in the haze right ahead. Great joy in consequence. We were a long time getting within good view, as the wind was in- creasingly light. However, by puff and starts we neared it, but so far to leeward that the whole of the day was lost in beating up from point to point, and at eight o'clock we stood on Akaroa Harbour with the wind at N. The first impression of Canterbury district, in which are reckoned the hills of Banks' Peninsula, were certainly not favourable. High (very high) and irregular hills clothed to appearance with a brown grass, seemed monotonous and scarcely relieved enough by the shadows cast in their undulations. As we grew nearer the shadows in many instances turned out to be groves of trees, a ravine & the side of a hill-top now and then well- wooded. One or two little farm houses we could see nestling near such groves in delightful and picturesque situations. The sward seemed close and well adapted for a sheep run and the country is altogether only adapted for pasturage. Akaroa Harbour is so closely hidden by the projection of its heads as we approached it, that it was a long time before we made it out - but when we did, we saw it at once to be a most enchanting spot and we all vowed to give it a closer visit before long. As we opened up the mouth of it; steering along E.N.E., we saw where the high wooded mountain must descend to the water's edge on one side, and how the perpen- dicular cliff on the other must charm by contrast. This was at the entrance of the harbour only, and we could only guess what the rest must be which winds inland completely land- locked, for seven miles. It must surely be a bit of Paradise, and must become a Richmond or Killarney some day hence. The emigrants are all arrayed in their cleanest and best, having expected to land this evening. Now it is a doubt whether, if this wind continue, we shall even come to anchor to-morrow. Willy McCormick has brought out the blue swallow-tail and brass buttons, and with White trousers and well-brushed boots, looks divine. Today at service was produced a Te Deum intended to be sung at landing; but every one pro- nounced it hideous - and so it was; for the most part a solo by the schoolmaster with nose obligato accompaniment, it is as unfit to be an expression of our united thanksgiving as Conte gentil would be. At dinner we had the champagne which I and the Captain lost to Wortley and FitzGerald - the ninety-eight days, in favour of which we bet, having expired today at noon. Monday, December 16th I got op early and went on deck to find that having weathered everything in the night we were gradually approach- ing our side of Banks' Peninsula and in fact standing direct for Port Cooper. The land we passed was most beautifully situated - high and wooded, with glades of grass running up through the forest here and there. We were all enchanted as fresh beauties broke on our view every moment. We passed successively Okain's Bay, Pigeon Bay, Port Levy and soon entered Port Cooper. We stood for about three miles through high brown hills with not a speck of life upon them to be seen. Till at last we saw a line of road, sloping upwards across one of the hills, and soon specks of labourers could be seen working at this road. All our eyes were strained to see if any ships were lying there - we at last saw two, and dire was the consternation, for we imagined we must be the third- beaten by two. A mile more proved to us that one was a ship-of-war, and the other a vessel too small to be one of ours. And so it came to pass - we rounded to, under the stern of the Fly corvette and cast anchor behind her. The other was the little Barbara Gordon which had left England in May. As we rounded to, we shot past a little point of land, and the town of Lyttelton burst upon our view - like a little village - but nothing more than a village, in snugness, neatness and pretty situation (under a high hill partly wooded). As soon as we came to anchor, a boat with an officer came off from the Fly and had an interview with the Captain below. Soon a boat came off from shore, containing the officer of Customs, and another with Dampier and my old school, fellow Torlesse on board. He welcomed me heartily and told me all the news, which was merely that they had lain dead and buried for the last eight or nine months in perfect inaction, without money or anything to do. The road was only half finished and (what I was sorry to hear) there were but few houses or lodgings, either built by the Association or in private hands. Notices had been issued warning people not to build, and this is the consequence. I anticipate com- plaints of the loudest kind from those of the better class, who seem to have been led to expect shelter of some sort provided for them, and will not be able to get any for love or money. We went ashore with Torlesse and walked up the hill, examining with curiosity every plant, stone & insect. Our hands, and soon our arms, soon became full of specimens. After a toilsome walk, over a path newly cut out, and in some places not finished, we reached the top of the hills, and looked down upon the plains and the sea on the other side. Though the haze partly concealed the view, it was magnificent - a vast level, brown & sandy to appearance but described as rich and fertile land, stretched away to the Snowy Mountains, or rather to a ridge of grassy hills at the foot of the Snowy Mountains - Kaikora and Mount Torlesse, the highest of all, were pointed out and easily seen. The sea washed one side of the plain, and its surface was traced by the lines of several rivers, and dotted with a few clumps of trees - some more than clumps being of good extent-a goodly range of wood lay under the grassy hills before mentioned. I imagine there will not be, on the plains at least, or anywhere but in Port Lyttelton, a scarcity of timber or firewood. We will nearly all choose a good situation for these purposes. We descended by another path to the town, and in our way passed through a small specimen of New Zealand bush. It was but a patch of scrub, but inside the path lay under or through trees, and the beauty of the underwood, the smell of flowers & scented leaves was incomparable. The shrubs were various - some looking like rhododendron - there were also varieties of myrtle fuchsia and acacia. Few were in flower. The only flowers visible were clematis and convolvulus (white), larger than I had ever seen them in England. Here and there were remains-roots, trunks and branches-of various useful trees whose qualities for dye, medicine and tanning, &c., Torlesse pointed out as we passed along. Wild cabbage and sow- thistle were growing plentifully everywhere, and the flowers were hepaticas and perennial (white) flax. Two or three daisies, too, were picked up. The native flax grows every, where, and so does the anise plant and the tutu - the latter fatal to, and the former most excellent for, cattle. We reached the town in time to be taken on board in the Captain's gig, having previously looked into several houses, in one of which we were regaled with new milk by a lone woman whose husband left her last year for California. A well, a powder magazine, emigrants' agents' houses were the only public buildings in the town - rude and simple all. Private houses - a few - two hotels, the Mitre and the Lyttelton Arms, no more than small grogshops with a loft and an outhouse. As we reached the beach, the Governor's boat came off from the Fly; He had come round from the Auckland Islands in her and was going back to Wellington and the North. His private Secretary, Nugent, I soon recognized, and introduced our- selves. He spoke very kindly, and in the evening he came on board to visit us and gave us some good advice - among other things to cut the town at once and take to the bush. He intends to go home in two years. He gives a poor account of the Auckland Islands for cold and barrenness. We went to dinner on board - but I had such a headache that life for the rest of the day was a burden to me. After dinner a ship was discovered coming in, and lo! it was the Randolph. We gave and received three cheers as she came up alongside. The Captain and Wortley went off, but I was too unwell. The news from her was that there had been disagreeables on board of all kinds. A mutiny among the sailors - the Captain having had to warn the cuddy passengers. There was also a rumour of pistols among the cabin passengers. Fisher in the evening unrolled a plan of getting a boat to carry all our goods and people round the heads to the Plain near some bush and river, and rough it out there away from the town till the land was portioned out. As this plan agreed with Captain Nugent's advice I agreed to it, and as soon as we can make arrangements, it is to be done. Tuesday, December 17th The confusion beginning. About twelve o'clock went on board the Fly to present a letter from the Council of Colonists to the Governor, praying for his influence with the Custom House officers to have our baggage, intended for personal use, landed free of duty. The Governor being on board the Randolph at prayers, we loitered and gossiped about the deck with the officers who were of the usual stamp in gentleman-like civility and conducted us about the ship. They had just come from the Auckland Islands. The Governor soon came on board with Captain Nugent, and I was introduced to him. He talked with me for a long time giving advice and his opinion that Canter- bury must 'go ahead'. His ideas of the duties of the customs were generous enough, but his powers limited - no control over the customs, and he could only volunteer his advice. After talking some time longer we went off. Meantime the Sir George Seymour came in and anchored abreast of us. She had sailed on Sunday, the eighth, so that we only beat her in point of time by two hours. Some of the emigrants went ashore today and were put in the barracks - Andy and Caughey among the rest. Converted to electronic form by Corey Woodw@rd
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